Anatomy 3 (lecture 5) Flashcards Preview

Study Notes - Gastroenterology > Anatomy 3 (lecture 5) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy 3 (lecture 5) Deck (48)
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1

what are the functions of the large intestine?

Defence (commensal bacteria)
Absorption (H2O and electrolytes)
Excretion

2

How is the caecum related to the peritoneum?

Intraperitoneal (quite mobile)

3

How is the ascending colon related to the peritoneum?

Secondarily retroperitoneal

4

What does secondarily retroperitoneal mean?

It originally was originally intraperitoneal (embryology)

5

What is the transverse colon in relation to the peritoneum?

intraperitoneal - highly mobile (has own mesentery)

6

Descending colon in relation to the peritoneum?

Secondarily retroperitoneal

7

What is the sigmoid colon in relation to the peritoneum?

Intraperiotneal - quite mobile as it has its own mesentery

8

Where are the 2 paracolic gutters?

Between the lateral edge of the ascending and descending colon and abdominal wall (called left and right paracolic gutters)

9

What are the paracolic gutters part of?

The greater sac of the peritoneal cavity

10

Where do the teniae coli run from and to?

From the caecum to the distal end of the sigmoid colon

11

What are the haustra?

Small pouches in the colon formed from the tonically contracted teniae coli

12

What causes darker blobs on a plain AXR?

Air

13

What does faeces appear like in the rectum on a plain AXR?

"Mottled" - mixture of air and faeces

14

In what part of the abdomen do the caecum and appendix lie?

The right iliac fossa

15

What is the opening of the ileum into the caecum called?

The ileocaecal orifice

16

What is the opening of the appendix into the caecum called?

Appendiceal orifice

17

How is the appendix most often located in comparison to the caecum?

Retrocaecal (64%)
Position can vary causing a variation in the symptoms people present with e.g. men can present with testicular pain due to extending down to the pelvis and irritating structures

18

On what part of the caecum is the appendiceal orifice mostly always on?
What does this correspond to?

The posteromedial wall
McBurney's point (1/3 of the way between right Anterior Superior Iliac Spine and the umbilicus)
Usually the point of maximum tenderness in appendicitis

19

In what part of the abdomen does the sigmoid colon lie?

left iliac fossa

20

What is the mesentery of the sigmoid colon called

Sigmoid mesocolon (gives it a considerable degree of movement)

21

Volvolus?

Abnormal twisting of a part of the GI tract

22

What is it called when the sigmoid colon twists around itself?
What does this result in?
What is the bowel at risk of if it is left untreated?

Sigmoid volvulus
Bowel obstruction
Infarction

23

Where does the abdominal aorta lie in relation to the IVC?

Left of the IVC

24

What are the 3 midline branches of the abdominal aorta and what does each supply?

Celiac trunk (foregut organs)
Superior mesenteric artery (midgut organs)
Inferior mesenteric artery (hindgut organs)

25

What do the lateral branches of the abdominal aorta supply? (3)

Body wall (posterolateral)
Kidneys/ adrenal glands
Gonads (ovaries/ testicles)

26

What does the abdominal aorta bifurcate into?
What does this further bifurcate into?

Common iliacs
Internal and external iliacs

27

See diagrams on superior mesenteric artery and inferior mesenteric artery

...

28

What is the predominant artery which anastomoses between the branches of the SMA and IMA?

Marginal artery of Drummond

29

What do arterial anastomoses between the SMA and IMA help to do?

Prevent intestinal ischaemia by providing a collateral route by which blood can travel

30

Where does the hindgut extend to?

The proximal half of the nail canal (the pectinate line)