*Oesophageal and Stomach Disorders (lectures 3 and 4) Flashcards Preview

Study Notes - Gastroenterology > *Oesophageal and Stomach Disorders (lectures 3 and 4) > Flashcards

Flashcards in *Oesophageal and Stomach Disorders (lectures 3 and 4) Deck (62)
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1

What mucosa lines the normal oesophagus?

Stratified squamous epithelium

2

What tends to cause acute oesophagitis?

Rare but usually caused by corrosion following chemical ingestion or infection in immunocompromised patients e.g. candidiasis, herpes

3

What tends to cause chronic oesophagitis?

Reflux disease - "reflux oesophagitis)
Rarely, caused by crohns

4

What is reflux oesophagitis?

Inflammation of oesophagus due to refluxed low pH gastric content

5

Microscopic appearance of reflux oesophagitis?

Basal zone epithelial expansion (hyperplasia)
Intraepithelial neutrophils, lymphocytes and eosinophils

6

What is Barrett's oesophagus?

Replacement of stratified squamous epithelium by columnar epithelium with intestinal metaplasia

7

How does the metaplasia occur in Barrett's oesophagus?

Due to expansion of columnar epithelium from gastric glands or from submucosal glands
Due to differentiation from oesophageal stem cells

8

What is allergic oesophagitis?
Other name

An inflammatory condition in which the walls of the oesophagus become filled with eosinophils
"eosinophillic" oesophagitis

9

What type of patients does allergic oesophagitis tend to occur in?

Those with a personal/ family history of allergy e.g. asthma
Young
Males more than females

10

pH probe of allergic oesophagitis?

Negative for reflux

11

Blood test in a patient with allergic oesophagitis?

Increased eosinophils

12

Appearance of an allergic oesophagitis?

Corrugated or "spotty" oesophagus

13

Treatment for allergic oesophagitis?

Steroids/ chromoglycate/ montelukast

14

What benign tumours are most commonly found in the oesophagus?
What are they associated with

Squamous papillloma
Rare
HPV

15

Other benign tumours of the oesophagus apart from squamous papilloma?

Leiomyomas
Lipomas
Fibrovascular polyps
Granular cell tumours
VERY rare

16

What is the commonest type of oesophageal cancer in males?

Squamous cell carcinoma

17

Causes of squamous cell carcinoma?

Vitamin A, zinc deficiency
Tannic acid/ strong tea
Smoking, alcohol
Oesophagitis
Genetic

18

What is commonest type of oesophageal cancer in caucasians?

Adenocarcinoma

19

Steps to developing adenocarcinoma of oesophagus?

genetics, reflux, etc. - chronic reflux oesophagitis - barretts oesophagus - low grade dysplasia - high grade dysplasia - adenocarcinoma

20

What type of cancers are the majority of oral cancers?

Squamous cell carcinoma

21

What parts of the mouth is it rare to develop cancer on?

Hard palate
Dorsum of tongue

22

Causes of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity?

Tobacco
Alcohol
Betel quid
Viral? (HPV)
Chronic infections?
Nutritional deficiencies
?genetics

23

Staging system for oral cancer?

TNM system

24

Treatment of oral cancer?

Surgery +/- adjuvant therapy

25

What is another name for dyspepsia?

Indigestion

26

What is dyspepsia?

pain or discomfort in the upper abdomen after eating and sometimes accompanied by nausea, vomiting or a feeling of unease or fullness

27

What is the name given to epigastric pain or burning?

Epigastric pain syndrome

28

What is the name given to postprandial fullness?

Postprandial distress syndrome

29

What is the name given to early satiety?

Postprandial distress syndrome

30

What are the 2 different categories of causes of dyspepsia?

Organic (25%)
Functional (75%)