Final - Exam (9/13,9/15) - [Exam 1 - Section 2] Flashcards Preview

Neuropsychology 343 > Final - Exam (9/13,9/15) - [Exam 1 - Section 2] > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final - Exam (9/13,9/15) - [Exam 1 - Section 2] Deck (73):
1

-Action Potentials -

Recovery:
Ions drift away and are pumped away by Na+ K+ pump
- ___ Na+ out / ___ K+ in

-3
-2

2

-Action Potentials-

Recovery:
Ions drift away and are pumped away by Na+ K+ pump
- 3 ___ out / 2 ___ in

-Na+
-K+

3

-Action Potentials-

Once an action potential is produced it is always the same _________ (all-or-none law)

size

4

-Action Potentials-

As action potential travels down the neuron it stays the same size – can be _________ over long distances

conducted

5

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-Action Potentials-

Refractory periods:

_________ – Na+ channels are open or cannot re-open so neuron cannot fire
Limits how frequently the neuron can fire

Absolute

6

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-Action Potentials-

Refractory periods:

Absolute – Na+ channels are open or cannot re-open so neuron _________ fire
Limits how _________ the neuron can fire

-cannot
-frequently

7

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-Action Potentials-

Refractory periods:

_________ – only a strong stimulus can make the neuron fire because NA+ channels are re-setting and neuron is hyperpolarized

Relative

8

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-Action Potentials-

Refractory periods:

Relative – only a strong stimulus can make the neuron fire because ____ channels are re-setting and neuron is _________

-NA+
-hyperpolarized

9

-Saltatory Conduction -

Glial cells produce _________ which wrap around axons

myelin sheaths

10

-Saltatory Conduction-

Ion gates at intervals (1 mm) down the length of the axon - _________

NODES OF RANVIER

11

-Saltatory Conduction-

The speed at which the action potential travels down a myelinated neuron is _________ than unmyelinated neurons because the action potential jumps from _________ – SALTATORY conduction

-faster
-node to node

12

The speed at which the action potential travels down a myelinated neuron is faster than unmyelinated neurons because the action potential jumps from node to node – _________

SALTATORY conduction

13

Deterioration of the myelin sheath - _________

multiple sclerosis

14

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-Toxins and Anesthetics -

Various toxins block the Na+ K+ pump or the ion channels preventing neurons from firing
-Puffer (fugu) fish toxin blocks ___ channels
Tetrodotoxin (TTX)

-Na+

15

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-Toxins and Anesthetics-

Scorpion venom keeps ___ channels open and closes ___ channels
-Prolonged depolarization

-Na+
-K+

16

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-Toxins and Anesthetics-

Various toxins block the Na+ K+ _________ or the ion channels preventing neurons from firing
-Poison arrow frogs produce Na+ channel blocker that keeps Na+ channels _________

-pump
-open

17

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-Toxins and Anesthetics-

Local anesthetics block _________ channels
-blocks action potentials so no _________ messages reach the brain

-sodium
-pain

18

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-Toxins and Anesthetics-

General anesthetics act by opening _________ channels

Potassium (K+)

19

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-Toxins and Anesthetics-

Mutations in ion channels (_________ ) associated with seizure disorders, deafness, muscle and cardiac diseases

channelopathy

20

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-Toxins and Anesthetics-

Mutations in ion channels (channelopathy) associated with seizure disorders, _________, muscle and _________ diseases

-deafness
-cardiac

21

There is a small gap (less than a millionth of an inch) between the terminal branches of the neuronal axon and the dendrites of the next neuron - _________

SYNAPTIC CLEFT

22

There is a small gap (less than a millionth of an inch) between the _________ of the neuronal axon and the _________ of the next neuron - SYNAPTIC CLEFT

-terminal branches
-dendrites

23

The neuron that sends the signal is called the _________ neuron

presynaptic

24

The neuron receiving the signal is called the _________ neuron

postsynaptic

25

An action potential in a neuron causes release of chemicals called _________ from the axon terminals into the synaptic cleft
-exocytosis

NEUROTRANSMITTERS

26

An action potential in a neuron causes release of chemicals called NEUROTRANSMITTERS from the axon terminals into the synaptic cleft
- _________

exocytosis

27

Neurotransmitters are formed in the cell body or axon terminals and packaged in _________

vesicles

28

Neurotransmitters are formed in the _________ or axon terminals and packaged in vesicles

cell body

29

NEUROTRANSMITTERS bind to _________ on the dendrites of the next neuron

RECEPTORS

30

NEUROTRANSMITTERS bind to RECEPTORS on the _________ of the next neuron

dendrites

31

Receptors are proteins that are embedded in the _________ membrane

postsynaptic

32

Receptors are _________ that are embedded in the postsynaptic _________

-proteins
-membrane

33

There are Many different types of receptors
A neurotransmitter can only _________ to its own _________ like a key in a lock

-bind
-receptor

34

Binding of the neurotransmitter to its receptor causes _________ or inhibition of the postsynaptic neuron

-excitation

35

Binding of the neurotransmitter to its receptor causes excitation or inhibition of the _________ neuron

postsynaptic

36

Neurotransmitter effects must be _________

terminated

37

Neurotransmitter effects must be terminated:

Neurotransmitter is taken back into _________ terminals (reuptake) and repackaged into _________ (pinocytosis)

-presynaptic
-vesicles

38

Neurotransmitter effects must be terminated:

Neurotransmitter is taken back into presynaptic terminals (_________) and repackaged into vesicles (_________)

-reuptake
-pinocytosis

39

Neurotransmitter effects must be terminated:
-Neurotransmitter is taken back into presynaptic terminals (reuptake) and repackaged into vesicles (pinocytosis)

--Broken down chemically in the _________ and then reabsorbed
--Absorbed by _________ cells

-synaptic cleft
-glial

40

Neurotransmitter effects must be terminated:
-Neurotransmitter is taken back into presynaptic terminals (reuptake) and repackaged into vesicles (pinocytosis)

--Broken down _________ in the synaptic cleft and then reabsorbed
-- _________ by glial cells

-chemically
-Absorbed

41

- _________ refractory period: can produce another action potential with additional stimulus

Relative

42

-Relative refractory period: _________ produce another action potential with additional _________

-can
-stimulus

43

-Absolute refractory period: _________ produce another action potential until it has made it past this _________

-can not
-stage

44

-Absolute refractory period: _________ produce another action potential until it has made it past this _________

-can not
-stage

45

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-Types of Neurotransmitters-

Originally thought that there were very few neurotransmitters but now thought to be more than _________

100

46

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-Types of Neurotransmitters-

-Many different types of _________
-Neurons can release more than one _________

-receptors
-neurotransmitter

47

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-Types of Neurotransmitters-

Main types of transmitters
_________ (e.g., glutamate, GABA, glycine)

Amino acids

48

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-Types of Neurotransmitters-

Amino acids:

-GABA: _________
-Glutamate: _________

-Inhibitory
-Excitatory

49

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-Types of Neurotransmitters-

Amino acids:

- _________ : Inhibitory
- _________ : Excitatory

-GABA
-Glutamate

50

-Vegas nerve slows the _________

heart rate

51

_________ channels open causing release of neurotransmitter to be released

Calcium Ion

52

_________ : dilates blood vessel

-nitric oxide

53

-nitric oxide: _________ blood vessel

dilates

54

-cocaine blocks the _________ of neurotransmitter

reuptake

55

-amphetamine _________ neurotransmitters release

increases

56

• Mimicking neurotransmitters - _________

AGONIST

57

• _________ neurotransmitters - AGONIST

Mimicking

58

• Blocking receptors – _________

ANTAGONIST

59

• _________ receptors – ANTAGONIST

Blocking

60

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-effects of neurotransmitters -

Runner’s high is thought to be due to release of a naturally occurring _________ type chemicals in the body – endorphins

-morphine

61

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-effects of neurotransmitters-

Runner’s high is thought to be due to release of a naturally occurring morphine type chemicals in the body – _________

endorphins

62

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-effects of neurotransmitters-

Placebo effect is due to the release of _________

endorphins

63

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-effects of neurotransmitters-

Acetylcholine – _________

Alzheimer’s

64

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-effects of neurotransmitters-

Dopamine – _________

Parkinson’s

65

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-effects of neurotransmitters-

NE and serotonin - _________

depression

66

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Drugs and diseases often produce their effects by interfering with specific _________

neurotransmitters

67

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Botulinum toxin (BOTOX) inhibits the release of _________ from neurons that innervate muscles

acetylcholine

68

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_________ toxin (BOTOX) inhibits the release of acetylcholine from neurons that innervate _________

-Botulinum
-muscles

69

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In large doses botulinum toxin paralyzes _________ causing problems with breathing and death
--Used to treat _________

In small doses:
--Used to decrease wrinkles
Migraine headaches

-muscles
-spasticity

70

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In large doses botulinum toxin paralyzes muscles causing problems with _________ and death
--Used to treat spasticity

In small doses:
--Used to decrease _________
Migraine headaches

-breathing
-wrinkles

71

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Albert Hoffman (1943) – Sandoz Pharmaceuticals
-- _________ growing on grain
--Discovered a substance that causes _________ disturbances

-Fungus
-visual

72

Drugs can alter neurotransmission by:

-Increasing or decreasing the amount of _________ released
-Blocking the re-uptake of neurotransmitter into the presynaptic neuron
-Mimicking neurotransmitters - _________
-Blocking receptors – ANTAGONIST

-neurotransmitter
-AGONIST

73

Drugs can alter neurotransmission by:

-Increasing or decreasing the amount of neurotransmitter released
- _________ the re-uptake of neurotransmitter into the presynaptic neuron
-Mimicking neurotransmitters - AGONIST
-Blocking receptors – _________

-Blocking
-ANTAGONIST