Final - Exam (9/20) - [Exam 1 - Section 3] Flashcards Preview

Neuropsychology 343 > Final - Exam (9/20) - [Exam 1 - Section 3] > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final - Exam (9/20) - [Exam 1 - Section 3] Deck (107):
1

A neuron receives up to _________ connections from other neurons

15,000

2

Inputs can _________ or _________ the neuron

-excite
-inhibit

3

Input into neurons can be:
- _________
- _________

-Excitatory
-Inhibitory

4

_________ :
--Partial depolarization (resting membrane potential is less negative)
--Excitatory postsynaptic potential (_____ )

-Excitatory
-EPSP

5

Excitatory:
--Partial depolarization (resting membrane potential is _________ negative)
--Excitatory _________ potential (EPSP)

-less
-postsynaptic

6

_________ :
--Partial hyperpolarization (resting membrane potential is more negative)
--Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (_____)

-Inhibitory
-IPSP

7

Inhibitory:
--Partial hyperpolarization (resting membrane potential is _________ negative)
--Inhibitory postsynaptic _________ (IPSP)

-more
-potential

8

Inhibitory:
--Partial _________ (resting membrane potential is more negative)
--Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)

-hyperpolarization

9

Excitatory:
--Partial _________ (resting membrane potential is less negative)
--Excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)

depolarization

10

Whether a neuron fires depends on the sum of the _________ it receives from other _________

-inputs
-neurons

11

Inputs on neuron combined:

_________ summation:
Potentials arriving within a short amount of time

Temporal

12

Inputs on neuron combined:

_________ summation
Potentials arriving at different points on the dendrites and cell bodies at the same time

Spatial

13

Inputs on neuron combined:

Temporal summation:
Potentials arriving within a _________ amount of time

short

14

Inputs on neuron combined:

Spatial summation:
Potentials arriving at different points on the dendrites and cell bodies at the _________ time

same

15

Postsynaptic Neuron firing:

Summed potentials spread to _________ – if above threshold neuron fires

axon hillock

16

Postsynaptic Neuron firing:

Summed potentials spread to axon hillock – if _________ threshold neuron fires

above

17

neuron integrates information from many _________

inputs

18

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Two parts of the nervous system:

- _________ nervous system
--Autonomic and somatic nervous system
--Reflexes

- _________ nervous system
--Brain and spinal cord
--Meninges
--Blood-brain barrier

-Peripheral
-Central

19

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Two parts of the nervous system:

-Peripheral nervous system
-- _________ and _________ nervous system
--Reflexes

-Central nervous system
--Brain and spinal cord
--Meninges
--Blood-brain barrier

-Autonomic
-somatic

20

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Two parts of the nervous system:

-Peripheral nervous system
--Autonomic and somatic nervous system
-- _________

-Central nervous system
--Brain and spinal cord
-- _________
--Blood-brain barrier

-Reflexes
-Meninges

21

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Two parts of the nervous system:

-Peripheral nervous system
--Autonomic and somatic nervous system
--Reflexes

-Central nervous system
-- _________
--Meninges
-- _________

-Brain and spinal cord
-Blood-brain barrier

22

A _________ is a single neural cell

neuron

23

A _________ is a bundle of axons running together like a multi-wire cable

nerve

24

A nerve is a bundle of axons running together like a multi-wire _________

cable

25

the term nerve is only used in the _________ nervous system (____)

-peripheral
-PNS

26

Inside the _________

--bundles of axons are called tracts or projections
--Groups of neuron cell bodies are called nuclei

central nervous system (CNS)

27

Inside the central nervous system (CNS)

--bundles of axons are called _________ or projections
--Groups of neuron cell bodies are called _________

-tracts
-nuclei

28

Inside the central nervous system (CNS)

--bundles of _________ are called tracts or projections
--Groups of _________ cell bodies are called nuclei

-axons
-neuron

29

The nervous system is split into 2 parts:
- _________
- _________

-Central nervous system (CNS
-Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

30

Central nervous system (CNS):
_________

Brain and spinal cord

31

Peripheral nervous system (PNS):
Everything outside the _________

CNS

32

Peripheral nervous system:

_________ – works automatically without our awareness (regulates heart beat, digestion, glandular activity, breathing etc)

_________ – control of skeletal muscles

-Autonomic
-Somatic

33

Peripheral nervous system:

_________ :
--Parasympathetic
--Sympathetic

Autonomic

34

Peripheral nervous system:

Autonomic – works automatically without our _________ (regulates heart beat, _________, glandular activity, breathing etc)

Somatic – control of _________ muscles

-awareness
-digestion
-skeletal

35

Peripheral nervous system:

Autonomic:
-- _________ – calming (eg, rest and digest - decreases blood pressure and heart rate)

Parasympathetic

36

Peripheral nervous system:

Autonomic:
-- _________ – stimulating (eg, fight or flight response – increase in blood pressure and heart rate)

Sympathetic

37

Peripheral nervous system:

Autonomic:
--Parasympathetic – calming (eg, rest and digest - _________ blood pressure and _________ )

-decreases
-heart rate

38

Peripheral nervous system:

--Sympathetic – stimulating (eg, _________ response – _________ in blood pressure and heart rate)

-fight or flight
-increase

39

Peripheral nervous system:

_________ – control of skeletal muscles

Somatic

40

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_________ – an automatic response to stimuli involving sensory and motor neurons

REFLEXES

41

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REFLEXES – an automatic response to stimuli involving _________ and _________ neurons

-sensory
-motor

42

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The basic unit of the _________ is the neuron

nervous system

43

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3 different types of neurons:

- _________ neurons
-Interneurons
- _________ neurons

-Sensory
-Motor

44

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3 different types of neurons:

- _________ – transmit information to the CNS from peripheral sense organs and tissues

Sensory neurons

45

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3 different types of neurons:

- _________ – transmit information within local circuits or across short distances

Interneurons

46

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3 different types of neurons:

- _________ – transmit information from the CNS to muscles (contract or relax) and glands

Motor neurons

47

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3 different types of neurons:

-Sensory neurons – transmit information to the _________ from peripheral sense _________ and tissues
-Interneurons – transmit information within local circuits or across short distances
-Motor neurons – transmit information from the CNS to muscles (contract or relax) and glands

-CNS
-organs

48

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3 different types of neurons:

-Sensory neurons – transmit information to the CNS from peripheral sense organs and tissues
-Interneurons – transmit information within local _________ or across _________ distances
-Motor neurons – transmit information from the CNS to muscles (contract or relax) and glands

-circuits
-short

49

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3 different types of neurons:

-Sensory neurons – transmit information to the CNS from peripheral sense organs and tissues
-Interneurons – transmit information within local circuits or across short distances
-Motor neurons – transmit information from the CNS to _________ (contract or relax) and _________

-muscles
-glands

50

CNS protected by the _________

blood-brain barrier

51

-Blood-Brain Barrier-

Capillaries supplying blood to the CNS have _________

tight junctions

52

-Blood-Brain Barrier-

CNS protected by the blood-brain barrier
--Capillaries supplying blood to the CNS have tight junctions
--Limits substances that can move from the blood to the _________ tissue

CNS

53

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_________ – towards back (superior)

Dorsal

54

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Dorsal – towards back (_________ )

superior

55

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_________ – towards stomach (Inferior)

Ventral

56

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Ventral – towards stomach (_________)

Inferior

57

_________ – front (rostral)

Anterior

58

Anterior – front (_________)

rostral

59

_________ – back (caudal)

Posterior

60

Posterior – back (_________)

caudal

61

_________ – towards middle

Medial

62

Medial – towards _________

middle

63

_________ – Away from middle
(towards outside)

Lateral

64

Lateral – Away from middle
(towards _________ )

outside

65

Right – your _________

right

66

Left – your _________

left

67

_________ – same side

Ipsilateral

68

Ipsilateral – _________ side

same

69

_________ – opposite side

Contralateral

70

Contralateral – _________ side

opposite

71

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_________ = hindbrain, midbrain, diencephalon

Brain stem

72

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Brain stem = _________, midbrain, _________

-hindbrain
-diencephalon

73

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Brain stem = hindbrain, _________, diencephalon

midbrain

74

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_________ = cortex, basal ganglia, limbic system, hypothalamus, thalamus

Forebrain

75

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Forebrain = cortex, _________, limbic system, _________, thalamus

-basal ganglia
-hypothalamus

76

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Forebrain = _________, basal ganglia, limbic system, hypothalamus, _________

-cortex
-thalamus

77

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Forebrain = cortex, basal ganglia, _________, hypothalamus, thalamus

limbic system

78

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_________ = ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra

Midbrain

79

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Midbrain = ventral tegmental area, _________

substantia nigra

80

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Midbrain = _________, substantia nigra

ventral tegmental area

81

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_________ = pons, medulla, cerebellum

Hindbrain

82

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Hindbrain = pons, _________, cerebellum

medulla

83

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Hindbrain = _________, medulla, _________

-pons
-cerebellum

84

The brain divided into 3 main parts:
- _________
-Midbrain
- _________

-Forebrain
-Hindbrain

85

The brain divided into 3 main parts:
-Forebrain
- _________
-Hindbrain

Midbrain

86

Forebrain:

- _________
-Thalamus
- _________

-Cerebral cortex
-hypothalamus

87

Forebrain:

-Cerebral cortex
- _________
-hypothalamus

Thalamus

88

_________ :

-Substantia nigra
-ventral tegmental area

Midbrain

89

Midbrain:

- _________
-ventral _________ area

-Substantia nigra
-tegmental

90

Hindbrain:

- _________
-pons
- _________

-Medulla
-cerebellum

91

Hindbrain:

-Medulla
- _________
-cerebellum

pons

92

-Multiple inputs are required to cause an _________

action potential

93

-resting membrane potential = ___mV

-70

94

_________ = -70mV

resting membrane potential

95

The closer the axon _________ lands on the neuron body towards the axon _________ the stronger the potential it has

-terminal
-hillock

96

The closer the axon terminal lands on the _________ body towards the axon hillock the _________ the potential it has

-neuron
-stronger

97

Hyperpolarizing = _________

inhibitory

98

_________ = inhibitory

Hyperpolarizing

99

_________ = everything outside the brain and spinal cord (CNS)

PNS

100

PNS = everything outside the _________

brain and spinal cord (CNS)

101

_________ - Bleeding often starts in the epidural space

Adult Head trauma

102

Adult Head trauma - Bleeding often starts in the _________

epidural space

103

Blood-brain barrier = capillaries with _________ junctions

tight

104

_________ = superior, essentially along the hair line

Dorsal

105

Dorsal = superior, essentially along the _________

hair line

106

_________ = issue on the same side, right side head injury, right arm problem

Ipsilateral

107

Ipsilateral = issue on the _________ side, right side head injury, _________ arm problem

-same
-right