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Flashcards in Exam 1 - Section 1 Deck (88):
1

_________ – the study of the nervous system

Neuroscience

2

_________ - the study of the relationship between behavior and brain function

Neuropsychology

3

Neuropsychology -
-The study of _________ human behavior (emotion, cognition etc.) based on the function of the _________
-Assessment of changes in _________ and neural function due to disease or traumatic brain injury
-Involves physiology, biopsychology, anatomy, biochemistry, pharmacology etc

-normal
-brain
-behavior

4

Neuropsychology -
-The study of normal human behavior (emotion, cognition etc.) based on the function of the brain
-Assessment of changes in behavior and _________ function due to disease or _________ brain injury
-Involves physiology, _________, anatomy, _________, pharmacology etc

-neural
-traumatic
-biopsychology
-biochemistry

5

Estimated number of traumatic brain injury per year in the US – _________

1.7 million

6

Number of Alzheimer’s patients = _________

Number of Alzheimer’s patients is expected to double by _________

-5.3 million
-2050

7

Cost of serious mental illness estimated at _________ billion per year in the US in 2002

$317.6

8

All psychological processes are based on _________ processes, many of which occur in the _________

-biological
-brain

9

_________ is a description of the things the brain does
mind = brain _________

-Mind
-activity

10

All _________ processes are based on brain activity

psychological

11

_________ is the basic unit of the brain

Neuron

12

Damage to one brain _________ may affect one aspect of a _________

-region
-behavior

13

Example of distributed _________ organization of function – the case of HM
Treatment for epilepsy – bilateral surgical removal of medial aspects of _________ lobe Surgery caused specific memory problems – could not form new memories
Old memories were retained

-hierarchical
-temporal

14

-Distributed hierarchical organization of function-
If unique aspects of a behavior reside in different areas of the brain, why don’t we perceive the different aspects of the behavior? _________ problem

Binding

15

_________ -
Multiple brain regions involved in forming
and interpreting images but we perceive a _________ image

-Vision
-single

16

Vision:

-Conscious and unconscious _________ streams
--Damage to conscious stream
(ventral stream) – cannot see or _________ an object
--No damage to unconscious stream
(dorsal) stream – can reach for an object but
cannot see it

-neural
-recognize

17

Vision:

-Conscious and unconscious _________ streams
--Damage to conscious stream
(_________ stream) – cannot see or recognize an object
--No damage to unconscious stream
(_________) stream – can reach for an object but
cannot see it

-ventral
-dorsal

18

-hemispheric lateralization-

Differences in importance of right and left cortical _________ in different _________
Left – speech
Right – spatial skills

-hemispheres
-functions

19

-hemispheric lateralization-

Differences in importance of right and left cortical hemispheres in different functions
Left – _________
Right – _________ skills

-speech
-spatial

20

Evolutionary newer (“higher”) brain regions responsible for more complex aspects of a behavior (_________ and _________ lobes)

-cortex
-frontal

21

the case of HM:

Surgery caused specific memory problems – could not form new memories ( _________ amnesia )

anterograde

22

What is a neuron?

-Dendrites,
- _________,
- axon,
- _________

-cell body
-axon terminals

23

What is a neuron?
- _________
- cell body
- _________
- axon terminals

-Dendrites
-axon

24

Neural signals:

The cell membrane
-- _________ to movement of ions

Permeability

25

Neural signals:

_________ -
-Depolarization
-Hyperpolarization
-Repolarization

Action potentials

26

Neural signals:

Action potentials-
- _________
-Hyperpolarization
- _________

-Depolarization
-Repolarization

27

-Neurons and Neural Transmission -

Premise - All _________ processes are due to biological processes, particularly the biological processes in the _________ system and the brain

-psychological
-nervous

28

-Neurons and Neural Transmission-

The building blocks of the nervous system –_________

NEURONS

29

-Neurons and Neural Transmission-

The brain has been estimated to consist of _________ billion neurons

85 - 120

30

-Neurons and Neural Transmission-

Neurons = ___% of the brain’s cells, _________ cells 2 – 10 times the number of neurons

-10
-glial

31

-Neurons and Neural Transmission-

Neurons receive, _________, and pass on _________ in the brain

-integrate
-information

32

-Neurons -

Signals travel from the _________ to the terminal branches of the _________

-dendrites
-axon

33

-Neurons-

-Signals are called _________ and consist of a brief change in the electrical _________ of the neuron
-Travel at 2 – 200 miles/h

-ACTION POTENTIALS
-polarization

34

-Neurons-

-Signals are called ACTION POTENTIALS and consist of a brief change in the electrical polarization of the neuron
-Travel at _________ miles/h

2 – 200

35

-Neurons-

_________ - bushy, branching extensions that receive messages and conduct them toward the _________
--The greater the surface area of dendrites the more information they can receive – dendritic spines increase surface area

-DENDRITES
-cell body

36

-Neurons-

DENDRITES - bushy, branching extensions that receive messages and conduct them toward the cell body
--The greater the _________ of dendrites the more information they can receive
– _________ increase surface area

-surface area
-dendritic spines

37

-Neurons-

CELL BODY (_________) – contains the nucleus with _________
--Conducts metabolic processes to support the survival of the neuron (energy, waste removal etc)

-Soma
-DNA

38

-Neurons-

CELL BODY (Soma) – contains the nucleus with DNA
--Conducts _________ processes to support the survival of the neuron (energy, _________ removal etc)

-metabolic
-waste

39

-Neurons-

_________ - extension of the neuron through which signals are passed – can be very long or very short
- _________ (start of axon)
-Axon terminals (teleodendria)

-AXON
-Axon hillock

40

-Neurons-

_________ – glial cells filled with fatty tissue (myelin) that surround the axons of many neurons allowing signals to be rapidly passed down the axon
- _________ - gaps in myelin sheath through which action potentials are transmitted

-MYELIN SHEATH
-NODES of RANVIER

41

-Neurons-

MYELIN SHEATH – glial cells filled with _________ (myelin) that surround the axons of many _________ allowing signals to be rapidly passed down the axon
-NODES of RANVIER - gaps in myelin sheath through which action potentials are transmitted

-fatty tissue
-neurons

42

-Neurons-

MYELIN SHEATH – glial cells filled with fatty tissue (myelin) that surround the axons of many neurons allowing signals to be rapidly passed down the axon
-NODES of RANVIER - gaps in _________ through which action potentials are _________

-myelin sheath
-transmitted

43

3 main types of neurons :

- _________
-Interneurons
- _________

-Sensory neurons
-Motor neurons

44

3 main types of neurons :

-Sensory neurons
- _________
-Motor neurons

Interneurons

45

_________ – specialized at one end – very sensitive to stimulation (touch, light, sound)
--information from body (sensory receptors) to brain and spinal cord
-- _________ – brings information into a structure (A = admission)

-Sensory neurons
-Afferent

46

Sensory neurons – specialized at one end – very sensitive to _________ (touch, light, sound)
--information from _________ (sensory receptors) to brain and spinal cord
--Afferent – brings information into a structure (A = admission)

-stimulation
-body

47

Sensory neurons – specialized at one end – very sensitive to stimulation (touch, light, sound)
--information from body (sensory receptors) to brain and _________
-- _________ – brings information into a structure (A = admission)

-spinal cord
-Afferent

48

-- Afferent – brings information _________ a structure (A = _________ )

-into
-admission

49

_________ – dendrites and axons within same structure
--carry _________ from one neuron to another neuron within the brain or spinal cord

-Interneurons
-messages

50

Interneurons – dendrites and _________ within same structure
--carry messages from one _________ to another _________ within the brain or spinal cord

-axons
-neuron
-neuron

51

_________ :
-output from brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs
- _________ – carries information away from a structure (E = exit)

-Motor neurons
-Efferent

52

Motor neurons:
-output from brain and spinal cord to _________ and organs
-Efferent – carries information _________ from a structure (E = exit)

-muscles
-away

53

-Efferent – carries information away from a structure (E = _________)

exit

54

-Neural Signals -

The neuronal _________ controls the passage of substances into and out of _________

-cell membrane
-neurons

55

-Neural Signals-

Cell membrane is selectively _________
Restricts what passes through

permeable

56

-Neural Signals-

Cell membrane is a double layer of _________ molecules + _________ molecules

-lipid
-protein

57

-Neural Signals-

Heads of lipid molecules are _________ – water loving

hydrophilic

58

-Neural Signals-

Heads of lipid molecules are hydrophilic – water _________

loving

59

-Neural Signals-

Tails of lipid molecules are _________ – water aversion

hydrophobic

60

-Neural Signals-

Tails of lipid molecules are hydrophobic – water _________

aversion

61

-Neural Signals-

Neuron cell membrane is selectively permeable
-Movement of electrically charged atoms or molecules called _________ in and out of the neuron can be _________ controlled

-IONS
-strictly

62

-Neural Signals-

_________ = atom or molecule that has gained or lost electrons

Ion

63

-Neural Signals-

Ion = atom or molecule that has gained or lost _________

electrons

64

-Neural Signals-

Selective _________ to ions = differences in the distribution of ions between the inside and the outside of the _________

-permeability
-neuron

65

-Neural Signals-

Selective permeability to ions = differences in the _________ of ions between the inside and the _________ of the neuron

-distribution
-outside

66

-Neural Signals-

When the neuron is _________ (resting) the ions on the outside are mainly sodium (_________) and chloride (Cl-, negative)

-inactive
-Na+, positive

67

-Neural Signals-

When the neuron is inactive (resting) the ions on the outside are mainly _________ (Na+, positive) and _________ (Cl-, negative)

-sodium
-chloride

68

-Neural Signals-

When the neuron is inactive (resting) the ions on the on _________ are potassium (K+) and negative ions (_________)

-inside
-anions

69

-Neural Signals-

When the neuron is inactive (resting) the ions on the on inside are _________ (K+) and _________ ions (anions)

-potassium
-negative

70

-Neural Signals-

More _________ ions on the inside of the neuron and more _________ ions on the outside of the neuron

-negative
-positive

71

-Neural Signals-

More negative ions on the _________ of the neuron and more positive ions on the _________ of the neuron

-inside
-outside

72

-Neural Signals-

More negative ions on the inside of the neuron and more positive ions on the outside of the neuron
Overall effect is that the _________ of the cell is more negative than the _________ of the cell

-inside
-outside

73

-Neural Signals-

Difference in electrical charge across membrane - the neuron is _________

POLARIZED

74

-Neural Signals-

Difference in charge between inside and outside the neuron – voltage = _________

RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL

75

-Neural Signals-

Typical resting potential is ___ mV

-70

76

-Action Potentials -

More _________ outside cell, inside cell more negative

Na+

77

-Action Potentials-

Concentration and electrical gradient for Na+ to move into cell but movement is _________

blocked

78

-Action Potentials-

More ____ inside cell but inside negative

K+

79

-Action Potentials-

K+ wants to move out of the neuron along concentration gradient but _________ gradient keeps it in – net effect weak tendency to move _________ of neuron

-electrical
-out

80

-Action Potentials-

When neuron is stimulated through input on _________
-Membrane potential becomes _________ negative (e.g., - 55 mV)
-Once threshold potential reached - Na+ channels open and Na+ rushes into the neuron
--Depolarization

-dendrites
-less

81

-Action Potentials-

When neuron is stimulated through input on dendrites
-Membrane potential becomes less negative (e.g., ___ mV)
-Once threshold potential reached - Na+ _________ open and Na+ rushes into the neuron
--Depolarization

- -55
-channels

82

-Action Potentials-

When neuron is stimulated through input on dendrites
-Membrane potential becomes less negative (e.g., - 55 mV)
-Once threshold potential reached - Na+ channels open and Na+ rushes _________ the neuron
-- _________

-into
-Depolarization

83

-Action Potentials-

At peak of _________ (i.e., +40 mV)
-Na+ channels close, voltage gated K+ channels open
-K+ floods _________ of neuron so membrane potential becomes more negative
--Repolarization

-depolarization
-out

84

-Action Potentials-

At peak of depolarization (i.e., ___ mV)
-Na+ channels _________, voltage gated K+ channels open
-K+ floods out of neuron so membrane potential becomes more negative
--Repolarization

- +40
-close

85

-Action Potentials-

At peak of depolarization (i.e., +40 mV)
-Na+ channels close, voltage gated ___ channels open
-K+ floods out of neuron so membrane potential becomes more _________
--Repolarization

- K+
-negative

86

-Action Potentials-

At peak of depolarization (i.e., +40 mV)
- ____ channels close, voltage gated K+ channels open
-K+ floods out of neuron so membrane potential becomes more negative
-- _________

- Na+
-Repolarization

87

Difference in charge between _________ and _________ the neuron – _________ = RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL

-inside
-outside
-voltage

88

Difference in electrical charge across _________ - the neuron is POLARIZED

membrane