Final Exam - Section 4 (11/29/16) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final Exam - Section 4 (11/29/16) Deck (72):
1

Consciousness - collection of processes including talking, _________, thinking, _________

-emotion
-seeing

2

Presence of only simple reflexes does not indicate _________

consciousness

3

No single brain structure is responsible for consciousness

_________ permits being awake but awake is not _________

-Reticular formation
-consciousness

4

consciousness - Involves connection and cognitive functions of all _________ areas

cortical

5

Response to visual stimuli can be _________ or _________

-conscious
-unconscious

6

-Consciousness -

_________ – swing at baseball before perception of ball (dorsal stream)

Unconscious

7

-Consciousness-

Unconscious – swing at baseball before perception of ball (_________ stream)

dorsal

8

-Consciousness-

_________ – aware that a bird just landed in a nearby tree (ventral stream)

Conscious

9

-Consciousness-

Conscious – aware that a bird just landed in a nearby tree (_________ stream)

ventral

10

-Consciousness-

Unconscious (_________ stream)

dorsal

11

-Consciousness-

Conscious (_________ stream)

ventral

12

Neural basis:
To be conscious of an object, need to have input from many systems

-Arousal – awake
- _________ – sensory input
-Attention – attend to specific object
- _________ memory

-Perception
-Working

13

Neural basis:
To be conscious of an object, need to have input from many systems

- _________ – awake
-Perception – sensory input
- _________ – attend to specific object
-Working memory

-Arousal
-Attention

14

Can detect _________ neural activity across neural networks when become _________ of an object

-synchronous
-conscious

15

Possible brain regions necessary for _________ :

dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex,
posterior parietal
posterior cingulate

consciousness

16

_________ - Small thin layer possibly responsible for being conscious or not

Claustrum

17

-Consciousness -

_________ -
Has inputs from all cortical regions and output to all of these regions

Claustrum

18

-Consciousness-

Stimulation of _________ in one epileptic patient caused loss of consciousness

Claustrum

19

Stimulation of Claustrum in one epileptic patient caused loss of _________

consciousness

20

Stimuli that do not reach consciousness can elicit _________

emotions

21

Presentation of scrambled image to dominant eye and visible face to non-dominant eye (_________ )

intraocular suppression

22

during intraocular suppression test-
Face becomes invisible but STS and _________ react to fearful face

amygdala

23

-Consciousness -

Scientists propose two systems-

-Unconscious system that reacts _________ with no conscious thought

-Conscious system that responds _________ and takes into account relevant knowledge

-quickly
-slower

24

Drug addicts will often come up with explanations of behaviors that come from _________ system

unconscious

25

_________ :

Loss of oxygen and glucose supply to brain destroys neurons

Cerebral vascular disorders

26

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Loss of oxygen and _________ supply to brain destroys _________

-glucose
-neurons

27

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Loss/reduction of oxygen and glucose for more than ___ minutes, all cells _________

-10
-die

28

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Most CNS vascular disease related to _________ system

arterial

29

_________ :

Most common causes of death and disability in western world

Cerebral vascular disorders

30

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Most _________ vascular disease related to arterial system

CNS

31

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Stroke (_________ ,CVA)

cerebral vascular accident,

32

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Stroke (cerebral vascular accident, CVA)

-Interruption in _________
-Most common cause of death _________

-blood flow
-worldwide

33

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Stroke (cerebral vascular accident, CVA)

_________ – area of dead or dying tissue due to obstruction of blood vessels

infarct

34

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Stroke (cerebral vascular accident, CVA)

Results in an infarct – area of dead or dying tissue due to _________ of blood vessels

-obstruction

35

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Stroke (cerebral vascular accident, CVA)

-Amount of damage depends on size and number of _________ affected
--Less damage with _________ vessels and only parts of vessels affected

-blood vessels
-small

36

Cerebral vascular disorders:

_________ -

-Amount of damage depends on size and number of blood vessels affected
--Less damage with small vessels and only parts of _________ affected

-Stroke (cerebral vascular accident, CVA)

-vessels

37

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Stroke (cerebral vascular accident, CVA)

Multiple lesions can have _________ effects

cumulative

38

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Stroke (cerebral vascular accident, CVA)

Effects depend on _________ of stroke

location

39

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Different types of stroke-

- _________ (blockage of artery stops blood supply to neural tissue)

Ischemic

40

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Different types of stroke-

-Ischemic (blockage of artery stops blood supply to _________ tissue)

neural

41

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Different types of stroke-

_________ - 85% of strokes

Ischemic

42

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Different types of stroke-

Ischemic -
- _________ (blood clot)

Thrombosis

43

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Different types of stroke-

Ischemic -
- Thrombosis (_________)

blood clot

44

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Different types of stroke-

_________ -
-Embolism (plug from larger vessel – clot, air bubble, oil or fat, mass of cells from tumor

Ischemic

45

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Different types of stroke-

Ischemic -
- _________ (plug from larger vessel – clot, air bubble, oil or fat, mass of cells from tumor

Embolism

46

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Different types of stroke-

Ischemic -
- Embolism (plug from larger vessel – clot, _________, oil or fat, mass of _________ from tumor

-air bubble
-cells

47

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Different types of stroke-

_________ -
-Related to cerebral arteriosclerosis (thickening or hardening of arteries)

Ischemic

48

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Different types of stroke-

Ischemic -
-Related to cerebral arteriosclerosis (thickening or hardening of _________ )

arteries

49

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Different types of stroke-

TIA – transient ischemic attack
--Migraine _________

vasospasm

50

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Different types of stroke-

Ischemic (_________ of artery stops blood supply to neural tissue)

blockage

51

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Ischemic-

- _________ - Forms somewhere else and moves to the blockage site

Embolism

52

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Ischemic-

- _________ - forms in the site of blockage

Thrombosis

53

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Ischemic-

-Embolism - Often forms in the _________ and moves towards the cns and forms the blockage

Heart

54

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Different types of stroke-

_________ (bleeding into the brain tissue)

Hemorrhagic

55

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Different types of stroke-

Hemorrhagic (bleeding into the _________ tissue)

brain

56

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Different types of stroke-

_________ -
-Temporary artery blockage

TIA – transient ischemic attack

57

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Different types of stroke-

_________ -
-Usually caused by hypertension

Hemorrhagic

58

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Different types of stroke-

_________ -

-Congenital issues with arteries
-Leukemia

Hemorrhagic

59

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Different types of stroke-

Hemorrhagic-

-Congenital issues with _________
-Leukemia

-arteries

60

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Different types of stroke-

_________-

-Brain trauma
-Abrupt onset

Hemorrhagic

61

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Different types of stroke-

_________-

-Usually during waking hours (higher BP)
-Poor prognosis

Hemorrhagic

62

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Different types of stroke-

Hemorrhagic-

-Usually during _________ hours (higher BP)
-Poor _________

-waking
-prognosis

63

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Stroke (cerebral vascular accident, CVA)

_________ – collection of abnormal blood vessels (congenital)

Angiomas

64

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Stroke (cerebral vascular accident, CVA)

Angiomas – collection of abnormal blood vessels (_________)

congenital

65

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Stroke (cerebral vascular accident, CVA)

Angiomas –

--Abnormal _________ flow, _________ vessels

-blood
-weak

66

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Stroke (cerebral vascular accident, CVA)

_________ – balloon-like expansion of part of blood vessel

Aneurysms

67

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Stroke (cerebral vascular accident, CVA)

_________ –

Congenital
Hypertension
Arteriosclerosis
Embolism
Infection
Causes severe headache

Aneurysms

68

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Treatment-

_________ - used to dissolve a clot

t-PA (tissue plasminogen activator)

69

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Treatment-

t-PA (tissue plasminogen activator) -

-Increases bleeding so use in cases of _________ due to plug in artery
-Must be administered within ___ hours of stroke

-ischemia
-3

70

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Treatment-

_________ – painted with plastic to prevent rupture or use stents or surgical repair

Aneurysms

71

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Treatment-

Drugs to reduce _________ after stroke (e.g., steroids)

edema

72

Cerebral vascular disorders:

Treatment-

_________ - for Aneurysms

Stent