Final Exam - Section 3 (11/22/16) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final Exam - Section 3 (11/22/16) Deck (75):
1

Attention-
Automatic processes -

bottom-up process - stimulated by stimuli in the _________

environment

2

Behaviors that are NOT automatic require _________ attention

focused

3

Behaviors that are not automatic require focused attention

- _________ process

Top-down

4

Automated attention - _________ process

Bottom-up

5

Focused attention - _________ Process

Top-down

6

_________ top-down focused attention

conscious

7

_________ - looking at a picture for the missing feature - focused

Conjunction search

8

Conscious / Focused attention-

Conjunction search -
_________ to detect features of stimuli

Serial process (serial search)

9

Attention-
If each feature of a stimulus (form, color, movement etc.) is processed in separate parts of the _________ lobes

occipital

10

Attention-
Some features are _________ significant (demand more attention) and are detected _________

-biologically
-faster

11

biological Attention-

amygdala responsive to _________ stimuli

fear

12

Neurophysiology of attention:

Measures of neural activity suggest that _________ attention depends on neurons in visual fields higher than V1 (e.g., V4)

-selective

13

Neurophysiology of attention:

Measures of _________ activity suggest that selective attention depends on neurons in visual fields _________ than V1 (e.g., V4)

-neural
-higher

14

Neurophysiology of attention:

_________ attention -

-Can only process so much information at a time
-Can only pay attention to one task at any moment

Divided

15

Neurophysiology of attention:

Divided attention-

-Can only process so much _________ at a time
-Can only pay attention to _________ task at any moment

-information
-one

16

Neurophysiology of attention:

Divided attention-

Multitasking _________ performance
--Attention to some stimuli decreases (e.g., cell phone and driving)
--Routine tasks demand little attention
--More complex tasks demand more attention

decreases

17

Neurophysiology of attention:

Divided attention-

Multitasking decreases performance
--Attention to some stimuli _________ (e.g., cell phone and driving)
--Routine tasks demand _________ attention
--More complex tasks demand _________ attention

-decreases
-little
-more

18

Neurophysiology of attention:

_________ – multiple objects or visual, auditory, and somatic information being perceived at the same time

Competing stimuli

19

Neurophysiology of attention:

Competing stimuli – multiple objects or _________, auditory, and _________ information being perceived at the same time

-visual
-somatic

20

Neurophysiology of attention:

Competing stimuli – multiple objects or visual, _________, and somatic information being perceived at the _________ time

-auditory
-same

21

Neurophysiology of attention:
Competing stimuli –

-Serial selection and processing of _________
-Visual stimuli get _________ attention than auditory unless specifically directed to pay attention to _________ stimuli

-objects
-more
-auditory

22

Neurophysiology of attention:

Competing stimuli –

_________ dorsolateral _________ cortex involved in processing multiple stimuli at the same time

-Left
-prefrontal

23

Neurophysiology of attention:

Competing stimuli –

Left _________ prefrontal cortex involved in processing _________ stimuli at the same time

-dorsolateral
-multiple

24

Neurophysiology of attention:

- _________ attention on one stimulus
- _________ attention – moving from one stimulus to another

-Fixed
-Shifting

25

Shifting attention activates _________ lobes

parietal

26

Neurophysiology of attention:

If stimuli in left visual field, _________ parietal lobe activated

-right

27

Neurophysiology of attention:

If stimuli in right visual field, _________ parietal lobe active

left AND right

28

right parietal lobe damage affects attention to _________ side of body or environment – hemineglect

-left

29

right parietal lobe damage affects attention to left side of body or environment – _________

hemineglect

30

If right parietal lobe damaged, attention to _________ visual field lost – left visual field only in _________ lobe

-left
-right

31

Right visual field in both lobes so damage to left, no _________

deficit

32

Hemineglect-
Shift attention to left side using _________ that shifted visual field to _________

-prisms
-right

33

Neurophysiology of attention:

Different neural pathways activated with different _________ tasks but depends on type of _________

-attention
-stimulus

34

Neurophysiology of attention:

Visual stimuli-

Anterior cingulate and prefrontal areas – all _________ tasks

-visual

35

Neurophysiology of attention:

Visual stimuli-

_________ – attention to location of visual stimuli

Parietal cortex

36

Neurophysiology of attention:

Visual stimuli-

_________ – color and form vision (ventral stream)

Occipitotemporal

37

Neurophysiology of attention:

Visual stimuli-

_________ -
Somatosensory areas and posterior parietal cortex

Tactile stimuli

38

Neurophysiology of attention:

Visual stimuli-

Tactile stimuli-
Somatosensory areas and _________ cortex

posterior parietal

39

Neurophysiology of attention:

Posner and _________ propose two attention systems

Raichle

40

-WHO-

_________

Posterior and Anterior cortical attention system

Posner and Raichle

41

Neurophysiology of attention:

Posterior cortical attention system
_________ cortex

Posterior parietal

42

Neurophysiology of attention:

Posterior cortical attention system-
-Posterior parietal cortex
--Disengage, engage, or move _________

attention

43

Neurophysiology of attention:

_________ cortex
Attention to features of objects

Posterior temporal

44

Neurophysiology of attention:

Posterior temporal cortex
-Attention to features of objects
--Damage causes _________

agnosias

45

Neurophysiology of attention:

Anterior cortical attention system
- _________ lobes

Frontal

46

Anterior cortical attention system
-Frontal lobes

_________ attention systems

Programs

47

Anterior cortical attention system
-Frontal lobes

-Programs attention systems
--Sends input to _________ attention system and _________ posterior attention system

-posterior
-activates

48

Damage to anterior attention system – cannot select _________ stimuli to attend to so overwhelmed by _________ (e.g., schizophrenia)

-specific
-input

49

Damage to anterior attention system – cannot select specific stimuli to attend to so overwhelmed by input (e.g., _________ )

schizophrenia

50

How do we pay attention?

Hypothesis – Activity in a population of neurons involved in processing stimuli becomes _________ when attending to stimulus

synchronized

51

How do we pay attention?

More likely to cause action potential in all postsynaptic neurons receiving _________ input

synchronous

52

Inattention:

Visual attention-

_________ -
– do not notice something when performing another task
Gorilla video

Inattentional blindness

53

_________ trumps _________

-Visual
-Auditory

54

Inattention:

Visual attention-

_________ -
Failure to detect changes in scene when not expecting changes

Change blindness

55

Inattention:

Visual attention-

_________ -
Fail to detect second stimuli if presented close to first stimulus (500 ms)

Attentional blink

56

Inattention:

Visual attention-

_________ -
-If told to ignore first stimulus, can detect second
-Limitation of visual system

Attentional blink

57

Inattention:

Visual attention-

_________ -
One person swapped out for another

Change blindness

58

Visual attention-

Inattentional blindness, change blindness, attentional blink

Information doesn’t reach _________ even though stimuli are processed by the _________

-consciousness
-brain

59

Visual attention-

Inattentional blindness, change blindness, attentional blink

Damage to this system – _________ neglect

-sensory

60

_________ -
Central representations or images

Mental images

61

Mental images-

_________ – initiating a movement leaves a record of that movement

Reafference theory (corollary discharge)

62

Reafference theory (_________)

-corollary discharge

63

Reafference theory (corollary discharge) -

As movement occurs, if there are differences between actual movement and neural record of the movement, movement can be _________ next time the movement occurs

adjusted

64

Reafference theory (corollary discharge) – initiating a movement leaves a _________ of that movement

record

65

Reafference theory (corollary discharge) –

Mentally rehearsing movement takes _________ amount of time and number of steps as the actual movement – suggests same _________ as in actual movement

-same
-processing

66

Reafference theory (corollary discharge) –

Scans during imagined movements – _________ active in frontal lobes during real and imagined movements

premotor cortex

67

Reafference theory (corollary discharge) –

Scans during imagined movements – premotor cortex active in frontal lobes during real and _________ movements

imagined

68

Reafference theory (corollary discharge) –

premotor cortex - Same area _________ in real and imagined movements

involved

69

Neural basis of mental images:
-Evidence that mental images originate from _________ levels of visual systems (temporal and parietal regions)

higher

70

Neural basis of mental images:
-Evidence that mental images originate from higher levels of visual systems (temporal and _________ regions)

-parietal

71

Neural basis of mental images:

mental images originate from higher levels of visual systems

-Then activate lower visual centers in _________ lobe

occipital

72

Neural basis of mental images:

_________ – same neural activity when see another person making a movement as if you are making movement

Mirror neurons

73

Neural basis of mental images:

Mirror neurons – same neural activity when see another person making a _________ as if you are making movement

movement

74

Neural basis of mental images:

Mirror neurons – Premotor cortex, _________, primary motor cortex

Broca’s area

75

Neural basis of mental images:

Mirror neurons – Premotor cortex, Broca’s area, _________ cortex

primary motor