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Flashcards in Gall Bladder and Pancreas Deck (55):
1

most common type of gall-stones

cholesterol

2

make up of pigmented stones

bilirubin calcium salts

3

pathernogenesis of cholesterol genes

cholesterol supersaturates bile --> crystalizes out of solution + hypomobility of the gallbladder and mucus hypersecretion

4

major factor causing pigmented stones in US

sickle cell

5

ethnic group most predisopsed to cholesterol stones

native americans

6

5 fs of gallbladder risk

fat, fair, forty, fertile, female

7

stones that are mostly radiopaque

pigment

8

stones that arise excusivily in the gallbaldder

cholesterol

9

presentation of gallstones

RUQ pain that can be constant or sporadic

10

complications of gallstones

empyema, perforation, fistulas, pancreatitis, intestinal obstruction

11

gallbladder is enlarged and tense, bright red or blotchy, and covered by fibrinous exudate

acute cholecystits

12

present in most acute cholecystitis

gallstone obstructing neck of gallbladder or cystic duct

13

gallbladder lumen filled with mostly pus called

empyema of the gallbladder

14

green-black gallbladder

gangernous cholecystitis

15

acute inflammation of a gallbladder that contains stones is

acute calculous cholesystiitis

16

can cause non-stone cholecystitis

major surgery, trauma, severe burns, sepsis

17

upper abdominal pain that radiates to right shoulder with abdominal rigidity

acute calculous cholecystitis

18

nausea, vominiting and intolerance for fatty foods

chronic cholecystits

19

complications of cholecystitis

bacterial superinfection with cholangitis
perforation and abcess/peritonitis
billiary enteric fistula
aggravation of preexisting illness

20

precense of stones within the billiary tree

choledocholithiasis

21

acute inflammation of the bile ducts

cholangitis

22

causes of cholangitis

choledocholithiasis
surgery involving biliary tree
tumors, stents acute pancreatis

23

fever chills, abdominal pain and jaundice

bacterial cholangitis

24

risk of supperative cholangitis

liver abcess formation

25

prolonged obstruction of the extrahepatic biliary tree can cause

profound damage to the liver

26

neonatal cholestatis

biliary atresia

27

treatment of biliary atresia

transplant

28

most common type of cancer in gallbladder

adenocarcinoma

29

adenocarcinomas that arise from cholagiocytes lining intraheptic and extrahepatic biliary ducts

cholangiocarcinoma

30

lots if intracelylar mucin, but no bile pogment of hyaline inclusion

cholangiocarcinoma

31

major cause of acute pancreatitis

alchohol abuse or biliary disease

32

basic alterations in acute pancreatitis

microvasculatr leakage causing edema
necrosis of fat by lipases
acute inflammatory reaction
proteolytic destriction of pancreatic parencyma
insistial hemmorage

33

histological findings in acute pancreattis

fat necrosis and calcium salts

34

severe form of acute pancreatitis

necrotising

35

critical triggering event in acute pancreatis

activation of trypsin

36

three patheogenesis paths of acute pancreatitis

1) duct obstruction
2) primary acinar cell injury
3) defective intracellular transport of proenzymes within acinar cells

37

location of pain in acute pancreatitis

epigastric pain radiating to upper back

38

dx of acute pancretitis

elevated amylase and lipase in plasma

39

non-pain signs of acute pancreatitis

abdominal guarding, absence of bowel souds

40

sequalae of acute pancreatitis

abcesses or pseudocysts

41

most common cause of chronic pancreatitis

long-term EtOH abuse

42

morphology of chronic pancreatitis

parenchymal fibrosis
reduced number and size of acini
variable dilation of pancreatic ducts

43

imaging result of chronic pancreatitis

calicfcation

44

signs of chronic pancreatitis

jaundice, indigestion, recurrent abdominal or back pain

45

long term effects of chronic pancreatitis

DM, chronic malabsorption, severe chronic pain, cancer

46

common anecedent of pancreatic carcinoma

panceratic intraepithelelal neoplasias

47

most frequent ocogene in pancreatic cancer

KRAS

48

stongest enviromental risk of pancreatic cancer

smoking

49

most common site of pancreatic carcinoma

head

50

most common type of pancreatic carcinoma

ductal adenocarcinoma

51

desoplastic resonse

reaction to pancreatic carcinoma constiting of fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and extracelllar matrix

52

site of pancreatic carcinoma that tends to be silernt

body and tail

53

presentatin of pancreatic carcinoma

jaundice
weight los
anorexia
malaise and weakness

54

spotting sign of pancreatic carcinoma

migratory thrombophebitis

55

lab test used in pancreatic carcinoma

CA19-9