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Flashcards in non-cancer SI Deck (69):
1

major causes of intestinal obstruction

hernia, adhesion, volvulus (twisting) and intusseption

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congenital defect in colonic innervation

hirschsprung disease

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neonates with failure to pass meconium followed by pbsreuctive constipation

hirschsprung disease

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pathenogenisis of hirschsprung disease

failure of neural crest cells to migrate from cecum to rectum

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genetic mutation in hirschsprung disease

loss of function mutation in TK RET

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common sites of herniation

weakness or defect in abdominal wall, inginial and femoral canal,unbilicus or sites of surgical scarring

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infarction limited to muscularis mucosa

mucosal infarction

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infarction of mucosa and submucosa

mural infarction

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infarction of all three layers of bawel wall

transmural infarction

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transmural infarction caused by

acute vascular obstruction

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can cause acute bowel vascular pbstruction

atherosclerosis
aneurysm
hypercoagulable states
emobolization of cardiac vegitation

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can cause intestinal hypoperfusion

cardiac failure
dehydration
vasoconstrictive drugs

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parts of bowel most sucseptible to ischemia

segments at the end of their respective arterial supplies (watershed zones)

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morphologic signature of ischemic bowel disease

eurface epithelial atryphy with normal or hyperproliferative crypts

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type of ischemic bowel disease that is segmental and patchy

mucosal and mural

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blood tinged mucous or blood in intestinal luman

transmural infarction

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sudden severe abdominal pain snd tenderness with n/v, bloddy diarreha and grossly melontic stool.

ischemic bowel disease

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rigid abdomominal wall and diminished bowel sounds

ischemic bowel disease

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ischemic bowel disease tends to be associated with

cardiac or vascular disease in older people

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malformed submucosal and mucosal blood vessels

angiodysplasia

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most often location of angiodysplasia

cecum or right colon

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pain and rectal bleeding

hemorroids

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bad cause of hemorroids

portal hypertension

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isontonic stool, perisiting during fasting

secretory diarrhea

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concentrated osmolar stool that abates with fasting

osmotic diarrhea

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typeof diahhrea in lactose intolerance

osmotic diarrhea

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steatorrhea and releved by fasting. flatus, abdominal pain and weight loss

malabsropative diarrhea

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bloody stools continuing through fasting

exudative diarrhea

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problems with malabsorptive diarreha

vitamin deficiency

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immune related eneropathy from ingestion of gluten

celiac disease

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genes present in celiac disease

HLA-DQ2/8

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histological findings in celiac disease

intraepithelial lymphocytosis, crypt hyperplasia, villious atrophy

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diarreha, bloating and fatige with anemia

celiac disease

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celiac disease pts have a higher risk of

lymphoma and intestinal adenocarcinonoma

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cause of pseudomembranois colitis

overgrowhth of c diff due to disruption of normal bowel flora, usually due to broad spectrum antibiotics

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membrane looking layer in the colon of inflamatory cells and debris

pseudomembranois colitis

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fever, leukocytosis, abdominal pain, water diarrhea and dehydration in a older, hospitalized person

pseudomembranois colitis

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volcano-like eruptions of neutrophils from colonic crypt

pseudomembranois colitis

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outpouching of colonic mucosa and submucosa

diverticulitis

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causes colonic diverticulitus

elevated intraluminal pressure in sigmoid colon

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dietary causes of diverticulitis

low-fiber diet

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most common place of diverticulitis

sigmoid colon

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intermittant cramping, continuus lower abdominal discomfort, constipation and diarrhea in older peope

diverticulitis

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skip lesion inflammatory bowel disease

crohn

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continus inflammatory bowel disease

ulcerative colitis

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transmural inflamation, ulceration and fissures

crohns

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psudopolyp and ulcers

ulcerative colotis

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area involved in ulcerative colitis

colon and rectum

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area involved in crohns

any part of GI tract

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lymphoid reaction and fibrosis IBD

crohn

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granulomas and fistulas in IBD

crohn

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IDB demographics

young, white, females (highest in A jews)

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genetic marker in IBD susceptiple families

NOD2

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cobblestone lesions

crohn

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creeping fat

crohn

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paneth cell metaplasia

crohn

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cutaneous granulomas in IBD

crohn

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intermittent attack of mild diarrhea, fever and abdominal pain with possible RLQ pain and fever

crohn

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extraintestinal manifestations IBD

crohn

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broad based ulcers IBD

UC

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pseudopolyps and mucosal atrophy

UC

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can lead to toxic megacolon (IBD)

UC

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relapsing attacks of bloody diarreha with expulsion of stringy, mucoid material. Lower abdominal pain and cramps releived by defecation

UC

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long term risk of IBD

perforation and cancer

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small peduculated polyps

tubular

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larger polyps covered by villi

villious polyps

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mix of villous and tubular polyps

tubulovillois polyps

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polyp most likely to turn malignant

serrated

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main way to gauge polyp to cancer risk

larger = higher risk