non-cancer esophagus Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in non-cancer esophagus Deck (39):
1

common sx of esophageal disorders

dysphagia
odynophagia (painful swallowing)
heartburn
hematemesis
melena (blood in stools)

2

difficulty swallowing solids can indicate

stricture, obstruction, carcinoma

3

difficulty swallowing solids can indicate

motility problem

4

most common hernia

sliding

5

hourglass hernia where GE is displaced through diaphram

sliding

6

GE junction is below diaphram, cardia moves into the thorax

paraesophageal

7

newborn with aspiration, pnemonia, and feeding problems

espophageal fistula/atresia

8

most common espophageal fistula/atresia

atresia of the upper esophagus with a fistula between the trachea and lower esophagus (type “C”).

9

Protrusions of mucosa into the esophageal lumen

esophageal webs

10

squamous mucosa and a vascularized submucosal core

esophageal webs

11

causes of esophageal webs

congenital
long standing reflux
GVHD
blistering skin disease

12

Paterson-Brown-Kelly or Plummer-Vinson syndrome

upper esophageal web accompanied by iron deficiency anemia, glossitis, cheliosis

13

long term risk of Paterson-Brown-Kelly or Plummer-Vinson syndrome

postcricoid esophageal carcinoma

14

achalasia

Failure of the lower esophageal sphincter to relax following swallowing

15

causes of achalasia

Functional obstruction
Dilation of upper esophagus
Primary vs. secondary (i.e. Chagas’ disease, DM, infiltrative disorders)

16

sx of achalasia

Dysphagia, nocturnal regurgitation, aspiration

17

long term risk of achalasia

Increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma

18

Absent myenteric (Auerbach’s) ganglia from the esophageal body will cause

achalasia

19

birds beak on barium swallow

achalasia

20

painful tears in the LES from retching and vomiting

mallory-weiss tears

21

risk factors of mallory-weiss tears

alchoholics and underlying hiatal hernia

22

complications of mallory-weiss tears

infection and massive hemorrage

23

Boerhaave syndrome

mallory-weiss syndrome with rupture

24

causes esophageal varices

portal hypertension

25

mortality of esophageal varices

50%

26

esophageal varices found in pts with

cirrosis (2/3)

27

types of esophagitis

reflux
corrosives/irratants
radiation/chemo
infection
eosinophillic

28

giant multinucleated cells with inclusions

herpes

29

silver stains candida...

black

30

PAS stains candida

pink

31

GERD with no response to medications

eosinophillic esophagitis

32

other sx seen with eosinophillic esophagitis

general allergies (asthma, exzema, chronic rhinitis)

33

24 hour probe testing for eosinophillic esophagitis returns...

normal

34

eosinophillic esophagitis appearance on endoscopy

felinization

35

sequalae of eosinophillic esophagitis

stricture

36

causes of reflux

incompetent LES, sliding hiatal hernia, delayed gastric emptying, increased gastric volume

37

microscopic signs of reflux

Eosinophils +/- other inflammatory cells (neutrophils and lymphocytes)
Elongation of vascular papillae
Basal layer hyperplasia

38

risk of barrett's esophagus

esophageal adenocarcinoma

39

barrett's esophagus changes what to what

normal distal stratified squamous mucosal to intestinal-type glandular mucosa