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Flashcards in GI cancer Deck (57):
1

benign tumor of esophageal smooth muscle

leiomyoma

2

most common malignant neoplasm type worldwide

esophageal SSC

3

ethicity risk of esophageal SSC

blacks much more than whites

4

causes most cases of US esophageal SCC

EtOH and smoking

5

base pathologic cause of esophageal SCC

chronic esophagitis

6

intercellular bridges, prominent nuclei and kertinization suggest

SCC

7

most common site of esophageal SCC

middle 1/3 of esophagus

8

reason esophageal SCCs spread so rapidly

rich lymphatics in the submucosa promote extensive curcumferental and longitudinal spread

9

where adenocarcinoma of esophagus arises

distal esophagus

10

most common esophageal cancer in caucasians

adenocarcinoma

11

precursor to adencarcinoma of the esophagus

barrett's esophagus

12

key step in development of esophageal adenocarcinoma

dysplasia (NOT METAPLASIA)

13

dysphagia with weight loss, bleeding, chest pain and vomiting after long term GERD

adenocarcinoma of esophagus

14

most common stomach cancer type

gastric carcinoma

15

main histological subgroups of gastric cancer

intestinal
diffuse infiltrative

16

gastric cancer most likely in older man

intestinal

17

gastric cancer in youger male or female

diffuse-infiltrative

18

risk factors involved in which stomach cancer

intestinal

19

risk factors in gastric cancer (intestinal type)

h pylori
high nitrate, salt, cured meat diet
low green leafy veg and citrus fruit

20

gastric carcinoma with precorsor lesions

intestinal

21

distended mucin "signet ring" cells

infiltrative gastric carcinoma

22

most common part of stomach in gastric carcinoma

pylorus and antrim

23

ulcer with rolled/heaped edges

gastric adenocarcinoma

24

"water bottle" stomach

invasive type gastric carcinoma

25

most important progostic determinant of gastric carcinoma

depth of invasion

26

weight loss, abdominal pain, anorexia, vomiting, altered bowel habits

gastric carcinoma

27

sentinal sign of gastric cancer

virchow (supraclavicular) node

28

sign that gastric cancer may have returned

sister mary joseph node (subcutaneous periumbilicle nodule)

29

gastric met to ovaries called

krukenberg tumor

30

most common malignant tumor of small bowel

duodenal adenocarcinoma

31

before this age, a colon cancer should be considered possible a UC or polyposis syndrome

50

32

dietary risk factors for colon cancer

high fat/low fiber
less A,C,E vitamins

33

anemia with weakness and fatigue

right colon cancer

34

occult bleeding, changes in bowek habits, crampy abdominal discomfort

left colon cancer

35

worse location t get colon cancer

left

36

grow as exophytic masses

right colon cancer

37

does not commonly obstruct

right colon cancer

38

greater microsatellite instability

right colon cancer

39

annular encirculing lesions with ulcerated midsection

left colon cancer

40

most important prognostic indicator of colon cancer

extent of tumor at diagnosis

41

two colo-rectal cancer molecular pathways

APC/Beta catenin
microsattellite instability pathway

42

transcription factor in nucleus that regulates proliferation/apoptosis

B catenin

43

80% of colon cancers have inactivated

APC

44

most freqently activated oncogene in colon cancer

K-RAS

45

common in colon cancer but infrequent in ademomas

loss of p53
high telomerase activity

46

germ-line mutation of cancer supression gene

APC

47

protooncogene mutation

K-RAS

48

loss of additonal cancer supresor gene in adenoma

p53

49

telemorase found in

carcinoma

50

defective DNA repair casued by inactivation of DNA mismatch repair genes

microsatellite instability

51

causes HNPCC syndrome

microsatellite instability

52

colon cancer pathway with better prognosis

microsatellite instability

53

most common site of carcinoid tumor

appendix

54

secretion of many different active bioactive hormones

carcinoid syndrome

55

yellow or tan tumors arising just below the mucosa

carcinoid tumors

56

salt and peper nuclei

carcinoid tumor

57

50% will go away if h pylori is removed

gastric MALT timor