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Flashcards in GI Deck (61):
1

Cholecystokinin source

I cells (duodenum, jejunum)

2

Gastrin source

G cells (antrum of stomach)

3

Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic peptide source

K cells (duodenum, jejunum)

4

Motilin source

Small intestine

5

Secretin source

S cells (duodenum)

6

Somatostatin source

D cells (pancreatic islets, GI mucosa)

7

VIP source

Parasympathetic ganglia in sphincters, gallbladder and small intestine

8

Intrinsic factor source

Parietal cells (stomach)

9

Gastric acid source

Parietal cells (stomach)

10

Pepsin source

Chief cells (stomach)

11

HCO3- source

Mucosal cells (stomach, duodenum, salivary glands, pancreas)
Brunner glands (duodenum)

12

Cholecystokinin action

-Increase pancreatic secretion
-Increase gallbladder contraction
-Delay gastric emptying
-Increase sphincter of Oddi relaxation

13

Gastrin action

-Increase gastric H+ secretion
-Increase growth of gastric mucosa
-Increase gastric motility
-Stimulate ECL cells to release Histamine (which also stimulates parietal cells to release H+)

14

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide action

Exocrine: decrease H+ secretion
Endocrine: increase insulin release

15

Motilin action

Produces migrating motor complexes (MMCs)

16

Secretin action

-Increase pancreatic HCO3- secretion
-Decrease gastric acid secretion
-Increase bile secretion

17

Somatostatin action

-Decrease gastric acid and pepsin secretion
-Decrease fluid secretion from pancreas and small intestine
-Decrease gall bladder contraction
-Decrease insulin and glucagon release

18

Nitric oxide action (in GI)

-Increase SM relaxation (including LED)

19

VIP action

-Increase intestinal water and electrolyte secretion
-Increase relaxation of intestinal smooth muscle and sphincters

20

Intrinsic factor action

Binds Vitamin B12 so that it can be taken up in the terminal ileum

21

Gastric acid action

Decrease stomach pH

22

Pepsin action

Protein digestion

23

HCO3- action

neutralize action

24

What is increased with fatty acids and amino acids ONLY?

Cholecystokinin

25

What is increased with fatty acids, amino acids, and oral glucose?

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide

26

What is increased with stomach distention/alkalinization, amino acids (phenylalanine and tryptophan), peptides, and vagal stimulation but decreased by stomach pH <1.5?

Gastrin

27

What is increased in fasting state?

motilin

28

Name a motilin receptor agonist used to stimulate intestinal peristalsis?

Erythromcin

29

What is increased by acid and fatty acids in lumen of duodenum?

Secretin

30

What is increased by acid but decreased by vagal stimulation?

somatostatin

31

What is increased by distention and vagal stimulation and decreased by vagal input?

VIP

32

What are the symptoms of a VIPoma?

-Watery diarrhea
-Hypokalemia
-Achlorhydria

33

What is increased by histamine, Ach, and gastrin but decreased by somatostatin, GIP, prostaglandin and secretin?

gastric acid

34

What is increased by vagal stimulation and local acid?

pepsin

35

What is increased by pancreatic and biliary secretion with secretin?

HCO3-

36

What are two pathological things that can lead to increased gastrin?

-Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
-Chronic PPI use

37

What is glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide known as?

GIP

38

Why is GIP significant for oral v. IV glucose?

Oral glucose load used more rapidly than IV due to GIP

39

Why is secretin important?

Increases HCO3- to allow pancreatic enzymes to function in duodenum

40

What is one of the underlying causes of achlasia?

Loss of NO secretion leading to increased LES tone

41

Why does atropine not block G cells?

vagal stimulation of G cells is through GRP not Ach (like with parietal cells)

42

Where is gastrin released?

into circulation (NOT into stomach)

43

What does falciform ligament connect?

Liver to anterior abdominal wall

44

What is contained in falciform ligament?

Ligamentum teres hepatis (fetal umbilical vein)

45

What does the hepatoduodenal ligament connect?

liver to duodenum

46

What does the hepatoduodenal ligament contain?

Portal triad (proper hepatic artery, portal vein, common bile duct)

47

What does the gastroheptic ligament connect?

liver to lesser curvature of stomach

48

What does the gastroheptic ligament contain?

gastric arteries

49

What separates greater and lesser omental sacs on the left?

gastrosplenic ligament

50

What separates greater and lesser sacs on the right?

gastrohepatic ligament

51

What does the gastrocolic ligament connect?

greater curvature and transverse colon

52

What does the gastrocolic ligament contain?

gastroepiploic arteries

53

What does the gastrosplenic ligament connect?

greater curvature and spleen

54

What does the gastrosplenic ligament contain?

Short gastrics
Left gastroepiploic vessels

55

What does the splenorenal ligament connect?

Spleen to posterior abdominal wall

56

What does the splenorenal ligament contain?

Splenic artery and vein; tail of pancreas

57

Part of GI with plicae circulares and crypts of Lieberkuhn

jejunum

58

Part of GI with crypts of Lieberkuhn, no villi and numerous goblet cells

colon

59

Part of GI with nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium

esophagus

60

Part of GI with villi and microvilli, Brunner glands, and crypts of Lieberkuhn

Duodenum

61

Part of GI with tons of goblet cells, Peyer patches, plicae circulares (proximally) and crypts of Lieberkuhn

Ileum