Micro (Bacteria and Parasites) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Micro (Bacteria and Parasites) Deck (211):
1

3 Parts of LPS

-Lipid A
-O Antigen
-Polysaccharide

2

Function of lipid A

TNF and IL-1 induction for gram negative sepsis

3

Function of O antigen

used for typing of Gram Negative species

4

Branching filaments

Actinomyces
Nocardia

5

Difference between actinomyces and nocardia

Nocardia is weakly acid fast

6

Mycoplasma cell membrane/cell wall features

-Sterols in cell membrane
-NO cell wall

7

Mycobacteria cell membrane/cell wall features

-Contain mycolic acid
-High lipid content

8

Bugs that do not gram stain well (and why)

-Treponema (too thin)
-Mycobacteria (tons of lipid in cell wall)
-Mycoplasma (no cell wall)
-Legionella (intracellular)
-Rickettsia (intracellular)
-Chlamydia (intracellular; lacks muramic acid in cell wall)

"These Microbes May Lack Real Color"

9

Bugs that stain with Giemsa stain

Chlamydia
Borrelia
Rickettsiae
Trypanosomes
Plasmodium

"Certain Bugs Really Try my Patience"

10

PAS staining bugs (why)

Tropheryma whipplei (stains glycogen and mucopolysaccharides)

11

Ziehl-Neelsen staining bugs (and why)

Nocardia
Mycobacteria
(acid fast)

12

India ink staining bugs

Cryptococcus neoformans

13

What other than india ink can be used to visualize cryptococcus?

Mucicarmine (stains thick polysaccharide capsule red)

14

Silver staining bugs

Fungi
Legionella
H. pylori

15

Isolated on chocolate agar

H. flu (needs X and V)

16

Isolated on Thayer-Martin Media

Neisseria

17

What is in Thayer-Martin Media

VPN
Vancomycin (kills GPs)
Polymyxin (kills GNs but neisseria)
Nystatin (kills fungi)

18

Isolated on Bordet-Gengou agar

Bordetella pertussis

19

Isolated on tellurite agar or Loffler medium

C. diptheriae

20

Isolated on Lowenstein-Jensen agar

Tb

21

Isolated on Eaton agar

M. pneumoniae (needs cholesterol)

22

Pink on MacConkey agar

Lactose-fermening enterics

23

Green metallic sheen on EMB agar

E. coli

24

Isolated on charcoal yeast extract buffered with cysteine and iron

Legionella

25

Isolated on Sabouraud Agar

fungi

26

Obligate aerobes

Nocardia
Pseudomonas
MycoBacterium Tb (apex of lung)

"Nagging Pests Must Breathe"

27

Obligate anaerobes

Closridium
Bacteroides
Actinomyces

"Can't Breathe Air"

28

What do obligate anaerobes lack?

Catalase and/or Superoxide dismutase (so susceptible for oxidative damage)

29

Obligate intracellular

Chlamydia
Rickettsia

30

Facultative intracellular

Samonella
Neisseria
Brucella
Mycobacterium
Listeria
Francisella
Legionella
Yersinia pestis

"Some Nasty Bugs May Live FacultativeLY"

31

Encapsulated Bacteria

Salmonella
H. Influenza
Neisseria meningitidis
E. coli
Strep pneumo
Klebsiella
Strep agalactiae (GBS)

SHINE SKiS

32

Catalase Positive Bugs

Pseudomonas
Listeria
Aspergillus
Candida
E. coli
S. aureus
Serratia

"PLACESS for cats"

33

Urease Positive Bugs

Cryptococcus
H. Pylori
Proteus
Ureaplasma
Nocardia
Klebsiella
S. epidermidis
S. saprophyticus

"CHuck norris hates PUNKSS"

34

Yellow "sulfur" granules

Actinomyces

35

Yellow pigment

Staph aureus

36

Blue-green pigment

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

37

Red pigment

Serratia marcescens

38

What produces Protein A?

Staph aureus

39

Wat does Protein A do?

Binds Fc region of IgG (to prevent opsonizaiton and phagocytosis)

40

What produces IgA protease?

S. pnumoniae
H. flu
Neisseria

"SHiN"

41

What does IgA protease do?

cleaves IgA in order to colonize respiratory mucosa

42

What produces M protein?

Group A Strep

43

What does M protein do?

helps prevent phagocytosis

44

Endotoxin or exotoxin: stable at 100 degrees for 1 hr

Endotoxin (exotoxin is destroyed at 60 degrees except staph enterotoxin)

45

Exotoxin or endotoxin: located on outer cell membrane

Endotoxin (of most gram negative bacteria)

46

Exotoxin or endotoxxin: high toxicity

Exotoxin

47

Exotoxin or endotoxin: poorly antigenic

Endotoxin (exotoxin induces high-titer Ab's called anti-toxins)

48

Which toxins inactivate elongation factor EF-2 via ADP ribosylation?

Diptheria
Exotoxin A (Pseudomonas)

49

Which toxins inactivate 60S ribosome by removing adenine from rRNA?

Shiga toxin
Shiga-like toxin (EHEC)

50

Which toxins overactivate adenylate cyclase to increase cAMP and Cl- secretion in the gut (and H2O efflux)?

LT toxin (ETEC)
Cholera toxin (permanent activaiton of Gs)

51

Which toxin mimics cholera toxin in the skin?

Edema factor (Bacillus anthracis)

52

Which toxin overactivates adenylate cyclase by disabling Gi (impairing phagocytosis)?

Pertussis toxin

53

Which toxin overactivates guanylate cyclase to incrase cGMP and decreases resorption of NaCl and H2O in the gut?

ST toxin (ETEC)

54

Which toxin prevents release of inhibitory neutotransmitters from Renshaw cells in spinal cord?

Tetanospasmin (cleave SNARE proteins)

55

Which toxin prevents release of stimulatory signals at the NMJ?

Botulinum toxin (cleave SNARE proteins)

56

Which toxin acts by degrading phospholipids?

Alpha toxin (lecithinase) of clostridium perfringens

57

What is the result of alpha toxin in clostridium perfringens?

-Myonecrosis (gas gangrene)
-"Double zone" of hemolysis on blood agar

58

Which toxin is a protein that degrades cell membranes?

Streptolysin O (strep pyogenes)

59

Which toxins bring MHC II and TCR together at outside of Ag binding iste to cause release of IL-1, TNF-alpha and IL-2?

-TSST-1 (staph aureus)
-Exotoxin A (strep pyogenes)

60

What things are released with endotoxins?

ENDOTOXIN
-edema (C3a)
-NO
-dic/death
-outer membrane
-TNF-ALPHA
-o-antigen
-extremely heat stable
-IL-1
-neutrophil chemotaxis (C5a)

61

Which bacteria are specialized at transformation (taking up DNA from environment)?

-S. pneumo
-H. flu
-Neisseria

"SHiN"

62

List the 5 bacterial toxins encoded on a lysogenic phage.

1) shigA-like toxin
2) Botulinum toxin
3) Cholera toxin
4) Diptheria toxin
5) Erythrogenic toxin of strep. pyogenes

63

Catalase positive

Staph

64

Novobiocin resistant

Staph Saprophyticus

65

Novobiocin sensitive

Staph Epidermidis

66

Optochin Sensitive

Strep pneumoniae

67

Optochin resistant

Strep viridans

68

Bacitracin sensitive

GAS

69

Bacitracin resistant

GBS

70

Alpha hemolytic

Strep pneumo
Viridans strep

71

Alpha-hemolytic bug that is bile soluble

Strep pneumo

72

Beta hemolytic

GBS and GAS

73

Gamma hemolytic

Enterococcus (GDS)
Strep. bovis

74

Gamma hemolytic with growth in bile and 6.5% NaCl

Enterococcus

75

Gram positive rods with metachromatic (blue and red) granules

Corynebacterium diptheriae

76

If see subacute endocarditis suspect colon cancer?

Strep bovis

77

Food poisoning with 2-6 hour incubation

Staph Aureus (enterotoxin)

78

Rusty sputum

Strep pneumo

79

Substance made by Strep sanguinis that binds to fibrin-platelet aggregates on damaged heart valves.

Dextrans

80

Sand-paper like rash and strawberry tongue

Scarlet fever (GAS)

81

What precedes rheumatic fever?

strep pharyngitis

82

What precedes PSGS?

impetigo > strep pharyngitis

83

Produces CAMP factor (enlarges area of hemolysis caused by Staph aureus).

GBS

84

Pregnant women positive for GBS treatment

Intrapartum penicillin prophylaxis for mom

85

What is Lancefield grouping based on?

differences in C carbohydrate in bacterial cell wall

86

Spore forming GP bacteria in soil.

Bacillus anthracis
Clostridium perfringens
C. tetani

87

Spore forming GP bacteria (not in soil)

B. cereus
C. botulinum
Coxiella burnetii

88

What is present in core of spore?

dipicolinic acid

89

How do you kill spores?

autoclaving (121 degrees for 15 minutes)

90

Toxin A of C-diff

Enterotoxin that binds to brush border of gut

91

Toxin B of C-diff

Cytotoxin that causes cytoskeletal disruption via actin depolymerization

92

Only bacteria with polypeptide capsule

Bacillus anthracis (D-glutamate)

93

Food poisoning with 1-5 hours til N/V and 8-18 hours til Diarrhea

B. cerues

94

Only gram positive bacteria to make endotoxin

Listeria monocytogenes

95

Branching filaments treated with penicillin

actinomyces

96

Branching filaments treated with sulfonamides

Nocardia

97

Which GP branching filament is an anaerobe?

Actinomyces

98

Which GP branching filament is part of normal oral flora?

Actinomyces (nocardia is in soil)

99

Which GP branching filament causes pulmonary infection in immunocompromised or cutaneous infection in immunocompetent with trauma?

Nocardia (actinomyces causes oral/facial abscesses that drain through sinus tracts)

100

Tumbling motility

Listeria

101

Mycobacterium leprae that has humoral Th2 response

Lepromatous leprosy

102

Mycobacterium leprae that has largery Th1 type immune response

Tuberculoid

103

Comma shaped oxidase positive GN

Campylobacter jejuni
Vibrio cholerae
H. pylori

104

Oxiadase positive GN rod

Pseudomonas

105

GN gros in 42 degrees

Campylobacter jejuni

106

GN Rod lacose nonfermenter

Shigella
Salmonella
Proteus
Yersinia
Pseudomonas

107

GN Rod lactose fermenter

Klebsiella (fast)
E. coli (fast)
Enterobacter (fast)
Citrobacter (slow)
Serratia (slow)

"macConKEES agar used to test!"

108

GN "coccobacilli"

-H. flu
-Pasteurella
-Brucella
-Bordetella pertussus

109

GN diplococci

Neisseria

110

Which neisseria ferments maltose?

Neisseria meningitidis

111

Bug that makes beta-galactosidase

E. coli (breaks lactose into glucose and galactose)

112

Which neisseria has a capsule?

Meningococci

113

Whcih neisseria can cause Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome?

Gonococci

114

Which neisseria is treated with cegtriaxone or penicillin G?

Meningococci (gonococci is treated with ceftriaxone + azithromycin or doxy for chlamydia co-infection)

115

Treatment of H. flu mucosal infection.

Amoxicillin +/- clavulanate

116

Treatment of H. flu close contacts.

Rifampin

117

Treatment of H. flu meningitis

Ceftriaxone

118

WHen do you give HiB vaccine?

Between 2-18 months

119

Detect pulmonary infection by antigen in urine?

legionella

120

What lab oddity is seen in Legionella infection?

hyponatremia

121

DOC for legionella

Macrolide
Quinolone

122

DOC for Pseudomonas

Aminoglycoside + piperacillin, ticarcillin, cefepime, imipenem, meropenem

123

E. coli that adheres to apical surface, prevents absorption, flattens villi

EPEC (affects children)

124

E. coli that invades intestinal mucosa and mimics shigella in manifestations

EIEC

125

4 A's of Klebsiella

Aspiration pneumonia
Abscess in lungs/liver
Alcoholics
di-A-betics

126

Salmonella or shigella: flagella

salmonella

127

Salmonella or shigella: PMN infiltrate

shigella

128

Salmonella or shigella: hematogenous spread

salmonella

129

Salmonella or shigella: hydrogen sulfide production

salmonella

130

Salmonella or shigella: antibiotics prolong fecal excretion of organism

salmonella

131

Salmonella or shigella: OFTEN causes bloody diarrhea

shigella (salmonella can cause)

132

What bug has K1 capsular polysaccharide?

E. coli

133

What is the function of K1 capsular polysaccharide?

Prevents phagocytosis and complement mediated lysis (causes neonatal meningitis)

134

What bug has P fimbriae?

E. coli

135

What is the function of P fimbriae?

allows adhesion to uroepithelium for UTIs

136

Comma shaped, oxidase +, GN that grows in alkaline media

Vibrio cholera

137

Transmitted by puppy poop and pork

Yersinia enterocolitica

138

H pylori treatment

PPI + Clarithromycin + Amoxicillin or metronidazole

139

Spirochetes

Borrelia (big)
Leptospira
Treponema

140

Surfers in Hawaii or animal urine

Leptospira interrogans

141

Symptoms of Leptospirosis

Flu-like
Jaundice
Photophobia
COnjunctival suffusion

142

Weil disease

Leptospira interrogans (icterohemorrhagic leptospirosis)

143

Ixodes tick

Borrelia burgdorferi
Babesia
Anaplasma

144

VDRL false positives

Viruses (mono, hepatitis)
Drugs
Rheumatic fever
Lupus/Leprosy

145

Flu-like syndrome after syphilis treatment

Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction

146

Monocytes with morulae in cytoplasm

ehrlichiosis

147

Granulocytes with morulae in cytoplasm

Anaplasmosis

148

Cat scratch, bacillary angiomatosis

Bartonella

149

Louse

-Borrelia recurrentis (relapsing fever due to variable surface antigens)
-Rickettsia prowazekii (epidemic typhus)

150

Unpasteurized dairy

Brucella (undulant fever)

151

Puppies, livestock then bloody diarrhea

Campylobacter

152

Parrots

Chlamydophila psittaci

153

Aerosols of cattle/sheep amniotic fluid

Coxiella burnetii (Q fever)

154

Lone star tics

Ehrlichia chaffeensis

155

Dermacentor tics

Rickettsia rickettsii

156

Ticks, rabbits, deer fly

Francisella tularensis

157

Armadillo

Mycobacterium leprae

158

Animal bite

Pasteurella multocida

159

Fleas

-Rickettsia typhi (endemic typhus)
-Yersinia pestis (on rats and prarie dogs)

160

Whiff test, Clue cells

Gardnerella vaginalis

161

Palms and soles rash

Coxsackievirus A (HF&M disease)
RMSF (starts on wrists)
Secondary syphilis

162

Rash that starts centrally, spreads out and spares palms/soles (from fleas/louse)

Endemic or Epidemic Typhus

163

Stages of chlamydia life cycle

Elementary body can live outside cells (gets endocytosed); Reticular body forms from EB and replicated by binary fission; RB transforms into EB

164

Lymphogranuloma venerum

Chlamydia trachomatis types L1-L3

165

Chlamydia induced blindness

Types A, B, C

166

Cold agglutinins (IgM)

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

167

MIssissippi and OH river valleys (caves)

HIstoplasmosis (macrophage filled with Histoplasma)

168

East of Mississippi and Central America

Blastomycosis (broad based buds)

169

Southwestern USA (California after earthquake)

Coccidioidomycosis (spherules filled with endospores)

170

Latin America

Paracoccidioidomycosis (looks like captin's wheel)

171

Spaghetti and meatballs

Malassezia furfur (tinea versicolor)

172

Treatment of versicolor

Topical miconazole
Selenium sulfide

173

Pseudohyphae at 20; germ tubes at 37

Candida albicans (opportunistic)

174

Septate hyphae at 45; Conidiophore with radiating chains

Aspergillus fumigatus (opportunistic)

175

Opportunistic fungi that causes meningitis

Cryptococcus neoformans

176

Diabetic ketoacidosis and leukemic patients

Mucormycosis

177

Latex agglutination test to detech polysaccharide capsular antigen

Cryptococcus

178

Fungal infection that increases risk of HCC

Aspergillus (produces aflatoxins)

179

Pigeon droppings

Cryptococcus

180

Treatment for pneumocystic jirovecci

TMP-SMX (prophylaxis with dapsone or atovaquone at CD4 <200)

181

Nodules along draining lymphatics

Sporothrix schenckii (from rose prick)

182

Treatment for sporothrix schenckii

Potassium iodide or itraconazole

183

Oocysts in water transmission

Cryptosporidium

184

Cysts in water transmission

Giardia lamblia
Entamoeba histolytica

185

Bloody diarrhea; Flask shaped ulcer; liver abscess with anchovy paste exudate

Entamoeba histolytica

186

Bloating, flatulence, fatty diarrhea

Giardia lamblia

187

Severe diarrhea in AIDS

Cryptosporidium

188

Trophozoites (with RBCs in cytoplasm) or Cysts (with up to 4 nuclei)

Entamoeba histolytica

189

Cryptosporidium treatment

Nitazoxanide

190

Transmitted by cysts in meat or oocysts in cat feces

Toxoplasma gondii

191

Transmitted by Tsetse fly (painful bite)

Trypanosoma brucei (African sleeping sickness)

192

Transmitted when freshwater lake swimming and enters cribriform plate

Naegleria fowleri

193

Causes ring-enhancing grain lesions and chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus and intracranial calcifications

Toxoplasmosis

194

Rapidly fatal meningoencephalitis with amoebas in spinal fluid

Naegleria fowleri

195

Treatment for Trypanosoma infection

Suramin (blood borne disease)
Melarsoprol (CNS penetration)

196

Maltese cross on blood smear

Babesia

197

Reduviid bug

Trypanosoma cruzi

198

Sandfly

Leishmania donovani

199

Sexual protozoa

Trichomonas vaginalis (treat partner with metronidazole)

200

Blackfly bite

Onchocerca volvulus (causes hyperpigmentation and river blindness)

201

Ingested nematodes

Enterobius (pinworm)
Ascaris (fiant roundworm)
Toxocara canis (causes visceral larva migrans)

202

Nematodes that penetrate skin

Strongyloides (worm ball)
Ancylostoma (hookworm)
Necator (hookworm)

203

Nematodes that enter via bites

Loa Loa (worm in conjunctiva)
Onchocerca volvulus (River blindness)
Wuchereria bancrofti (elephantitis)

204

Biliary tract disease, cholangiocarcinoma

Clonorchis sinensis (from undercooked fish)

205

Brain cysts, seizures

Taenia solium (cysticercosis fromeating eggs)

206

Hematuria, bladder cancer

Schistosoma haematobium

207

Liver (hyadatid) cysts

Echinococcus granulosus

208

Microcytic anemia

Ancyostoma
Necator

209

Perianal pruritis

Enterobius

210

Portal HTN

Schistosoma mansoni
Schistosoma japonicum

211

Vitamin B12 deficiency

Diphyllobothrium latum