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Flashcards in Neuro Deck (69):
1

CNS location of NE synthesis

Locus ceruleus (pons)

2

CNS location of DA synthesis

Ventral tegmentum and SNc (midbrain)

3

CNS location of 5-HT synthesis

Raphe nucleus (pons, medulla, midbrain)

4

CNS location of Ach synthesis

Basal nucleus of Meynert

5

CNS location of GABA synthesis

nucleus accumbens

6

Neurotransmitter levels in Anxiety

High NE
Low 5-HT and GABA

7

Neurotransmitter levels in Depression

Low NE, DA and 5-HT

8

Neurotransmitter levels in HD

High DA
Low Ach and GABA

9

Neurotransmitter levels in PD

Low DA and 5-HT
High Ach

10

Neurotransmitter levels in Alzheimer disease

Low Ach

11

Where is ADH made?

supraoptic nucleus

12

Where is oxytocin made?

paraventricular nucleus

13

What part of the hypothalamus controls hunger?

Lateral Area

14

What part of the hypothalamus controls satiety?

Ventromedial area

15

What part of the hypothalamus controls cooling?

Anterior hypothalamus

16

What part of the hypothalamus controls heating?

Posterior hypothalamus

17

What part of hypothalamus controls circadian rhythm?

Suprachiasmatic nucleus

18

EEG when awake

Beta waves (high frequency, low amp)

19

EEG when awake (eyes closed)

Alpha waves

20

EEG when in Stage N1 Non-REM sleep

Theta waves

21

EEG when in Stage N2 Non-REM sleep

Sleep spindles and K complexes

22

EEG when in Stage N3 Non-REM sleep

Delta waves (lowest frequency, highest amplitude)

23

EEG when in REM sleep

Beta waves

24

What stage of sleep has bruxism (teeth clenching)?

N2

25

What stage of sleep has sleep walking, night terrors and sleep enuresis?

N3

26

What receives input from spinothalamic and dorsal columns/medial leminiscus?

VPL of thalamus

27

What info does the VPL of the thalamus receive?

Pain and temperature
Pressure, touch, vibration and proprioception

28

What receives information from the trigeminal and gustatory pathway?

VPM of thalamus

29

What info does the VPM of the thalamus receive?

Face sensation
Taste

30

What receives information from CN II?

LGN of the thalamus

31

What information does the LGN receive?

Vision (sends it to calcarine sulcus)

32

What receives information from the superior olive and inferior colliculus of the tectum?

MGN of the thalamus

33

What information does the MGN receive?

Hearing (sends it to auditory cortex of temporal lobe)

34

What receives input form the basal ganglia and the cerebellum?

VL of thalamus

35

What information does the VL receive?

motor

36

Achilles reflex

S1-S2

37

Patellar reflex

L3-L4

38

Biceps reflex

C5-C6

39

Triceps reflex

C7-C8

40

Cremaster reflex

L1-L2

41

Anal wink reflex

S3-S4

42

Corneal reflex (aff and eff)

Aff: V1 (nasociliary branch)
Eff: VII (temporal branch= orbicularis oculi)

43

Lacrimation reflex (aff and eff)

Aff: V1
Eff: VII

44

Jaw Jerk reflex (aff and eff)

Aff: V3 (sensory from muscle spindle)
Eff: V3 (motor from masseter)

45

Pupillary reflex (aff and eff)

Aff: II
Eff: III

46

Gag reflex (aff and eff)

Aff: IX
Eff: X

47

CN that exits from cribriform plate

CN I

48

CN that exits from middle cranial fossa

II-VI

49

CN that exits from posterior cranial fossa

VII-XII

50

CN that exits from superior orbital fissure

III, IV, V1 (opthalmic branch), VI
(with opthalmic vein and sympathetic fibers

51

CN that exits from Foramen Rotundum

V2 (maxillary)

52

CN that exits from optic canal

CN II
(with opthalmic artery and central retinal vain)

53

CN that exits from foramen ovale

V3 (mandibular)

54

CN that exits from foramen spinosum

NONE! middle meningeal artery does

55

CN that exits from jugular foramen

CN IX, X, XI
(with jugular vein)

56

CN that exits from internal auditory meatus

CN VII, VIII

57

CN that exits via foramen magnum

spinal roots of XI
(with brain stem and vertebral arteries)

58

CN that exits via hypoglossal canal

CN XII

59

Nucleus solitarius

VII, IX, X

60

Nucleus ambiguus

IX, X, XI

61

Dorsal motor nucleus

X

62

CN that pass through cavernous sinus

VI (medial), III (superolateral), IV, V1, V2 (inferolateral)

Internal carotid artery also makes a loop to pass through

63

Where is low frequency sound best heard?

Apex near helicotrema

64

Where is high frequency sound best heard?

Base of cochlea

65

Stroke with dysphagia and hoarseness

PICA (nucleus ambiguus affected)

66

Stroke with facial nerve paralysis

AICA (facial nucleus affected)

67

Stroke with tongue affected (deviates ipsilaterally)

ASA (caudal medulla affected)

68

Stroke with contralateral hemianopia with macular sparing

PCA

69

Vessel affected in "locked in syndrome"

basilar artery