Flashcards in Neuro Deck (69):
CNS location of NE synthesis
Locus ceruleus (pons)
CNS location of DA synthesis
Ventral tegmentum and SNc (midbrain)
CNS location of 5-HT synthesis
Raphe nucleus (pons, medulla, midbrain)
CNS location of Ach synthesis
Basal nucleus of Meynert
CNS location of GABA synthesis
Neurotransmitter levels in Anxiety
Low 5-HT and GABA
Neurotransmitter levels in Depression
Low NE, DA and 5-HT
Neurotransmitter levels in HD
Low Ach and GABA
Neurotransmitter levels in PD
Low DA and 5-HT
Neurotransmitter levels in Alzheimer disease
Where is ADH made?
Where is oxytocin made?
What part of the hypothalamus controls hunger?
What part of the hypothalamus controls satiety?
What part of the hypothalamus controls cooling?
What part of the hypothalamus controls heating?
What part of hypothalamus controls circadian rhythm?
EEG when awake
Beta waves (high frequency, low amp)
EEG when awake (eyes closed)
EEG when in Stage N1 Non-REM sleep
EEG when in Stage N2 Non-REM sleep
Sleep spindles and K complexes
EEG when in Stage N3 Non-REM sleep
Delta waves (lowest frequency, highest amplitude)
EEG when in REM sleep
What stage of sleep has bruxism (teeth clenching)?
What stage of sleep has sleep walking, night terrors and sleep enuresis?
What receives input from spinothalamic and dorsal columns/medial leminiscus?
VPL of thalamus
What info does the VPL of the thalamus receive?
Pain and temperature
Pressure, touch, vibration and proprioception
What receives information from the trigeminal and gustatory pathway?
VPM of thalamus
What info does the VPM of the thalamus receive?
What receives information from CN II?
LGN of the thalamus
What information does the LGN receive?
Vision (sends it to calcarine sulcus)
What receives information from the superior olive and inferior colliculus of the tectum?
MGN of the thalamus
What information does the MGN receive?
Hearing (sends it to auditory cortex of temporal lobe)
What receives input form the basal ganglia and the cerebellum?
VL of thalamus
What information does the VL receive?
Anal wink reflex
Corneal reflex (aff and eff)
Aff: V1 (nasociliary branch)
Eff: VII (temporal branch= orbicularis oculi)
Lacrimation reflex (aff and eff)
Jaw Jerk reflex (aff and eff)
Aff: V3 (sensory from muscle spindle)
Eff: V3 (motor from masseter)
Pupillary reflex (aff and eff)
Gag reflex (aff and eff)
CN that exits from cribriform plate
CN that exits from middle cranial fossa
CN that exits from posterior cranial fossa
CN that exits from superior orbital fissure
III, IV, V1 (opthalmic branch), VI
(with opthalmic vein and sympathetic fibers
CN that exits from Foramen Rotundum
CN that exits from optic canal
(with opthalmic artery and central retinal vain)
CN that exits from foramen ovale
CN that exits from foramen spinosum
NONE! middle meningeal artery does
CN that exits from jugular foramen
CN IX, X, XI
(with jugular vein)
CN that exits from internal auditory meatus
CN VII, VIII
CN that exits via foramen magnum
spinal roots of XI
(with brain stem and vertebral arteries)
CN that exits via hypoglossal canal
VII, IX, X
IX, X, XI
Dorsal motor nucleus
CN that pass through cavernous sinus
VI (medial), III (superolateral), IV, V1, V2 (inferolateral)
Internal carotid artery also makes a loop to pass through
Where is low frequency sound best heard?
Apex near helicotrema
Where is high frequency sound best heard?
Base of cochlea
Stroke with dysphagia and hoarseness
PICA (nucleus ambiguus affected)
Stroke with facial nerve paralysis
AICA (facial nucleus affected)
Stroke with tongue affected (deviates ipsilaterally)
ASA (caudal medulla affected)
Stroke with contralateral hemianopia with macular sparing