Flashcards in Repro Deck (100)
Lymph drainage of ovary/testis
Lymph drainage of distal vagina/vulva/scrotum
superficial inguinal node
Lymph drainage of proximal vagina/uterus
Obturator, external iliac and hypogastric nodes
Lymph drainage of anterior/lateral cervix
external iliac node
Lymph drainage of posterior/lateral cervix
internal iliac node
Lymph drainage of posterior cervix
obturator and presacral nodes
What do the infundibulopelvic ligaments contain?
What does the infundibulopelvic ligament do?
connects ovaries to lateral pelvic wall
What do the cardinal ligaments contain?
What do the cardinal ligaments do?
connects cervix to side wall of pelvis
What does the round ligament do?
connects uterine fundus to labia majora
What does the broad ligament do?
connects uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries to pelvic side wall
What is contained within the broad ligament?
contains ovaries, fallopian tubes and round ligaments of uterus
What does the ovarian ligament do?
connects medial pole of ovary to lateral uterus
Which female ligament is a derivative of the gubernaculum?
List the 3 parts of the broad ligament
Path of sperm during ejaculation.
Visceral and somatic (pudendal)
Estrogen from ovary
Estrogen from placenta
Estrogen from adipose tissue
Potency of estrogens
estradiol > estrone > estriol
What female cells does FSH act on?
What female cells does LH act on?
What triggers lactation after delivery?
fall in progesterone disinhibits prolactin
Primary oocyte cell cycle arrest
Prophase I (until ovulation)
Secondary oocyte cell cycle arrest
Metaphase II (until fertilization)
How long does it take for fertilization of an ovulated egg to occur?
must be fertilized in one day
How long does it take a fertilized egg to implant?
6 days after fertilization
When can home pregnancy tests detect beta-hCG?
2 weeks after conception
When can you detect beta-hCG in blood?
1 week after conception
Hormone levels in Klinefleters
High FSH, LH
Hormone levels in Turners
High FSH, LH
Hormone levels in defective androgen receptor
Hormone levels in testosterone-secreting tumors (or exogenous steroids)
Hormone levels in primary hypogonadism
Hormone levels in Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism
Hormone levels in aromatase deficiency
-Increase serum testosterone and androstenedione (in female infant)
-Maternal virilization (androgens cross placenta)
Hormone levels in androgen insensitivity syndrome
-High testosterone, estrogen
Hormone levels in 5-alpha reductase deficiency
Normal to high LH
Hormone levels in Kallmann syndrome
Low FSH, LH
What are the stipulations for gestational HTN?
-After 20th week
What are the stipulations for preeclampsia?
-After 20th week
-Proteinuria >300 mg/24 hours
What are the stipulations for HELLP?
-Elevated liver enzymes
-Low platelet levels
When do you deliver for gestational HTN?
When do you deliver for preeclampsia (mild)?
When do you deliver for preeclampsia (severe)?
When do you deliver for eclampsia or HELLP?
Treatment for endometritis
Gentamicin + clindamycin +/- ampicillin
What female cells produce progesterone and androgens?
What stimulates theca interna?
What does FSH do in the ovary?
stimulates granulosa cell to convert androgen to estradiol
Hormone levels in PCOD
High LH, High FSH (3:1 ratio)
High testosterone (low SHBG)
What do OCPs do for PCOD?
estrogen increases SHBG and decrease LH which leads to decreased free testosterone
What does clomiphene citrate do for PCOD?
Increases fertility: BLocks negtive feedback from circulating estrogen to increase FSH and LH
What does metformin do for PCOD?
-Increase insulin sensitivity
-Decrease insulin levels
-This decreases testosterone and enables LH surge
Distention of unruptured graafian follicle
Hemorrhage into persistent CL
corpus luteum cyst
Cyst type that is often multiple and b/l
Blood vessel rupture in cyst wall
Endometriosis within ovary
Endometrioid (chocolate) cyst
Common, thin-walled benign ovarian neoplasm lined with fallopian-like epithelium (often b/l)
Multiloculated, large benign ovarian neoplasm lined by mucus-secreting epithelium
Benign ovarian mass arising from growth of ectopic endometrial tissue
Benign germ cell tumor in women 20-30 that contains tissue from all 3 germ cell layers
Mature cystic teratoma (dermoid cyst)
Benign ovarian neoplasm that looks like bladder (coffee bean nuclei on H&E; yellow colon grossly and appears encapsulated)
Benign ovarian neoplasm with bundles of spindle shaped fibroblasts
What is Meigs syndrome?
(get pulling sensation on groin)
Benign ovarian tumors similar to granulosa cells tumors that may produce estrogen
Malignant ovarian neoplasm containing fetal neuroectoderm and usually thyroid tissue
Most common sex cord stomal tumor with Call-Exner bodies and presents as sexual precocity in pre-adolescents (due to production of estrogen/progesterone)
Granulosa cell tumor
Most common malignant ovarian neoplasm and has psammoma bodies
Malignant ovarian neoplasm with sheets of uniform "fried egg" cells and secretes hCG and LDH
Malignant ovarin neoplasm due to malignant trophoblastic tissue
Schiller-Duval bodies (look like glomeruli) in ovary or testes and AFP secretion
Yolk sac (endodermal sinus) tumor
(most common tumor of male infants)
Mucin-secreting signet cells
Krukenberg tumor (GI malignancy that metastasizes to ovary)
Rhabdomyosarcoma variant (vaginal tumor of girls under 4 y/o that is desmin +)
Firm, fibrous "rock-hard" mass iwth sharp margins and grossly "stellate" infiltration
Invasive ductal carcinoma of breast
Orderly row of breast cancer cells "indian file" invasion
Invasive lobular carcinoma of breast
Fleshy, cellular breast mass with lymphocytic infiltrate
Medullary carcinoma of breast
Dermal lymphatic invasion by breast carcinoma
Inflammatory breast carcinoma (causes Peau d'orange)
Breast pathology with increased acini and intralobular fibrosis (associated with calcifications)
Sclerosing adenosis (not cancer but increases risk)
Treatment of acute breast mastitis (by staph aureus)
Dicloxacillin (and continue breastfeeding)
What prostate parts are enlarged in BPH?
Middle and lateral lobes (periurethral)
What prostate parts are affected by adenocarcinoma?
posterior lobe (peripheral zone)
Hormone levels in cryptorchidism
High FSH, High LH
Testosterone (low if b/l, normal if u/l)
Painless homogenous testituclar enlargement in 3rd decade (high ALP)
Testicular tumor in boy <3 y/o (with Schiller-Duval bodies)
Yolk sac tumor
Testicular tumor with trophoblastic elements (may metastasize to lung and brain and see high hCG)
Teratoma in adult male prognosis
May be malignant (benign in children)
Malignant, hemorrhagic and painful testicular mass with necrosis and glandular/papillary morphology (high hCG when pure, high AFP when mixed)
Leydig cell testicular tumor
Most common testicular cancer in old men
testicular lymphoma (metastases)
Leukoplakia on penile shaft
Bowen disease (squamous cell carcinoma in situ)
Erythroplakia on glans penis
Erythroplasia of Queyrat (squamous cell carcinoma in situ)