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Flashcards in Repro Deck (100):
1

Lymph drainage of ovary/testis

Para-aortic LN

2

Lymph drainage of distal vagina/vulva/scrotum

superficial inguinal node

3

Lymph drainage of proximal vagina/uterus

Obturator, external iliac and hypogastric nodes

4

Lymph drainage of anterior/lateral cervix

external iliac node

5

Lymph drainage of posterior/lateral cervix

internal iliac node

6

Lymph drainage of posterior cervix

obturator and presacral nodes

7

What do the infundibulopelvic ligaments contain?

ovarian vessels

8

What does the infundibulopelvic ligament do?

connects ovaries to lateral pelvic wall

9

What do the cardinal ligaments contain?

uterine vessels

10

What do the cardinal ligaments do?

connects cervix to side wall of pelvis

11

What does the round ligament do?

connects uterine fundus to labia majora

12

What does the broad ligament do?

connects uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries to pelvic side wall

13

What is contained within the broad ligament?

contains ovaries, fallopian tubes and round ligaments of uterus

14

What does the ovarian ligament do?

connects medial pole of ovary to lateral uterus

15

Which female ligament is a derivative of the gubernaculum?

Round ligament

16

List the 3 parts of the broad ligament

mesosalpinx
mesometrium
mesovarium

17

Path of sperm during ejaculation.

SEVEN UP
Seminiferous tubules
Epididymis
Vas deferens
Ejaculatory ducts
Nothing
Urethra
Penis

18

Erection innervation

Parasympathetic (pelvic)

19

Emission innervation

Sympathetic (hypogastric)

20

Ejaculation innervation

Visceral and somatic (pudendal)

21

Estrogen from ovary

17-beta-estradiol

22

Estrogen from placenta

estriol

23

Estrogen from adipose tissue

estrone

24

Potency of estrogens

estradiol > estrone > estriol

25

What female cells does FSH act on?

Granulosa cells

26

What female cells does LH act on?

theca cells

27

What triggers lactation after delivery?

fall in progesterone disinhibits prolactin

28

Primary oocyte cell cycle arrest

Prophase I (until ovulation)

29

Secondary oocyte cell cycle arrest

Metaphase II (until fertilization)

30

How long does it take for fertilization of an ovulated egg to occur?

must be fertilized in one day

31

How long does it take a fertilized egg to implant?

6 days after fertilization

32

When can home pregnancy tests detect beta-hCG?

2 weeks after conception

33

When can you detect beta-hCG in blood?

1 week after conception

34

Hormone levels in Klinefleters

High FSH, LH
High estrogen
Low testosterone

35

Hormone levels in Turners

High FSH, LH
Low estrogen

36

Hormone levels in defective androgen receptor

High LH
High testosterone

37

Hormone levels in testosterone-secreting tumors (or exogenous steroids)

High testosterone
Low LH

38

Hormone levels in primary hypogonadism

High LH
Low testosterone

39

Hormone levels in Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

Low LH
Low testosterone

40

Hormone levels in aromatase deficiency

-Increase serum testosterone and androstenedione (in female infant)
-Maternal virilization (androgens cross placenta)

41

Hormone levels in androgen insensitivity syndrome

-High testosterone, estrogen
-High LH

42

Hormone levels in 5-alpha reductase deficiency

Normal testosterone/estrogen
Normal to high LH

43

Hormone levels in Kallmann syndrome

Low GnRH
Low FSH, LH
Low testosterone

44

What are the stipulations for gestational HTN?

-After 20th week
-BP >140/90

45

What are the stipulations for preeclampsia?

-After 20th week
-BP >140/90
-Proteinuria >300 mg/24 hours

46

What are the stipulations for HELLP?

-Hemolysis
-Elevated liver enzymes
-Low platelet levels

47

When do you deliver for gestational HTN?

39 weeks

48

When do you deliver for preeclampsia (mild)?

37 weeks

49

When do you deliver for preeclampsia (severe)?

34 weeks

50

When do you deliver for eclampsia or HELLP?

immediately

51

Treatment for endometritis

Gentamicin + clindamycin +/- ampicillin

52

What female cells produce progesterone and androgens?

theca interna

53

What stimulates theca interna?

LH

54

What does FSH do in the ovary?

stimulates granulosa cell to convert androgen to estradiol

55

Hormone levels in PCOD

High LH, High FSH (3:1 ratio)
High testosterone (low SHBG)
High estrogen
Low testosterone

56

What do OCPs do for PCOD?

estrogen increases SHBG and decrease LH which leads to decreased free testosterone

57

What does clomiphene citrate do for PCOD?

Increases fertility: BLocks negtive feedback from circulating estrogen to increase FSH and LH

58

What does metformin do for PCOD?

-Increase insulin sensitivity
-Decrease insulin levels
-This decreases testosterone and enables LH surge

59

Distention of unruptured graafian follicle

Follicular cyst

60

Hemorrhage into persistent CL

corpus luteum cyst

61

Cyst type that is often multiple and b/l

Theca-lutein cyst

62

Blood vessel rupture in cyst wall

Hemorrhagic cyst

63

Mature teratoma

dermoid cyst

64

Endometriosis within ovary

Endometrioid (chocolate) cyst

65

Common, thin-walled benign ovarian neoplasm lined with fallopian-like epithelium (often b/l)

Serous cystadenoma

66

Multiloculated, large benign ovarian neoplasm lined by mucus-secreting epithelium

Mucinous cystadenoma

67

Benign ovarian mass arising from growth of ectopic endometrial tissue

Endometrioma

68

Benign germ cell tumor in women 20-30 that contains tissue from all 3 germ cell layers

Mature cystic teratoma (dermoid cyst)

69

Benign ovarian neoplasm that looks like bladder (coffee bean nuclei on H&E; yellow colon grossly and appears encapsulated)

Brenner tumor

70

Benign ovarian neoplasm with bundles of spindle shaped fibroblasts

Fibroma

71

What is Meigs syndrome?

Triad:
-Ovrian fibroma
-Ascites
-Hydrothorax
(get pulling sensation on groin)

72

Benign ovarian tumors similar to granulosa cells tumors that may produce estrogen

Thecoma

73

Malignant ovarian neoplasm containing fetal neuroectoderm and usually thyroid tissue

immature teratoma

74

Most common sex cord stomal tumor with Call-Exner bodies and presents as sexual precocity in pre-adolescents (due to production of estrogen/progesterone)

Granulosa cell tumor

75

Most common malignant ovarian neoplasm and has psammoma bodies

serous cystadenocarcinoma

76

Pseudomyxoma peritonei

Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma

77

Malignant ovarian neoplasm with sheets of uniform "fried egg" cells and secretes hCG and LDH

Dysgerminoma

78

Malignant ovarin neoplasm due to malignant trophoblastic tissue

Choriocarcinoma

79

Schiller-Duval bodies (look like glomeruli) in ovary or testes and AFP secretion

Yolk sac (endodermal sinus) tumor
(most common tumor of male infants)

80

Mucin-secreting signet cells

Krukenberg tumor (GI malignancy that metastasizes to ovary)

81

Sarcoma botryoides

Rhabdomyosarcoma variant (vaginal tumor of girls under 4 y/o that is desmin +)

82

Firm, fibrous "rock-hard" mass iwth sharp margins and grossly "stellate" infiltration

Invasive ductal carcinoma of breast

83

Orderly row of breast cancer cells "indian file" invasion

Invasive lobular carcinoma of breast

84

Fleshy, cellular breast mass with lymphocytic infiltrate

Medullary carcinoma of breast

85

Dermal lymphatic invasion by breast carcinoma

Inflammatory breast carcinoma (causes Peau d'orange)

86

Breast pathology with increased acini and intralobular fibrosis (associated with calcifications)

Sclerosing adenosis (not cancer but increases risk)

87

Treatment of acute breast mastitis (by staph aureus)

Dicloxacillin (and continue breastfeeding)

88

What prostate parts are enlarged in BPH?

Middle and lateral lobes (periurethral)

89

What prostate parts are affected by adenocarcinoma?

posterior lobe (peripheral zone)

90

Hormone levels in cryptorchidism

Low inhibin
High FSH, High LH
Testosterone (low if b/l, normal if u/l)

91

Painless homogenous testituclar enlargement in 3rd decade (high ALP)

Seminoma

92

Testicular tumor in boy <3 y/o (with Schiller-Duval bodies)

Yolk sac tumor

93

Testicular tumor with trophoblastic elements (may metastasize to lung and brain and see high hCG)

Choriocarcinoma

94

Teratoma in adult male prognosis

May be malignant (benign in children)

95

Malignant, hemorrhagic and painful testicular mass with necrosis and glandular/papillary morphology (high hCG when pure, high AFP when mixed)

Embryonal carcinoma

96

Reinke crystals

Leydig cell testicular tumor

97

Most common testicular cancer in old men

testicular lymphoma (metastases)

98

Leukoplakia on penile shaft

Bowen disease (squamous cell carcinoma in situ)

99

Erythroplakia on glans penis

Erythroplasia of Queyrat (squamous cell carcinoma in situ)

100

Reddish penis papules

Bowenoid papulosis (squamous cell carcinoma in situ)