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Flashcards in GI and Urinary Diseases Deck (62)
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1

what is the two types of swallowing disorders?

esophageal and oropharangeal

2

swallowing is super complex cause

it reuquires coordination of over 50 nerves and muscles

3

3 stages of swallowing

voluntary oral stage

involuntary pharyngeal stage

esopheageal stage

4

Food is chewed and the bolus (food) is forced into the pharynx

voluntary oral stage

5

Pharynx share respiratory tracts, where food bypasses respiratory passages when the soft palate closes the epiglottis, and food travels to the esophagus

involuntary pharyngeal stage

6

Bolus continues to move to the stomach through peristalsis action

Esophageal stage

7

refers to the sensation of food sticking in the esophagus/ base of throat/chest

Esophageal Dysphagia

8

what causes esophageal dysphasia?

Achalasia

Diffuse spasm

Esophageal stricture

Esophageal tumors

Foreign bodies

Esophageal ring

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

9

Achalasia (esophageal dyspagia)

lower esophageal muscle (sphincter) doesn't relax properly, can cause regurgitation of food, tends to get worse over time

10

Diffuse spams (esophageal dysphasia)

produces multiple, high-pressure, poorly coordinated contractions of esophagus after a swallow
affects the involuntary muscles of lower esophagus

11

Esophageal stricture (esophageal dysphasia)

Narrowing of esophagus stricture can cause large pieces of food to get caught

may result from scar tissue, acid reflux or tumors

12

Esophageal tumors (esophageal dysphasia)

Difficulty swallowing tends to get progressively worse when esophageal tumors are present

13

Foregn bodies (esophageal dysphasia)

may partially block the throat or esophagus by food
Older adults with dentures or those with difficulty chewing properly more susceptible
Children may swallow small objects, such as coins or toy pieces

14

Esophageal ring (esophageal dysphasia)

narrowing in the lower esophagus can intermittently cause difficulty swallowing solid foods

15

acid reflux (esophageal dysphasia)

Damage to esophageal tissues from gastric acid backing up (refluxing) into your esophagus
can lead to spasm or scarring and narrowing of lower esophagus, making swallowing difficult
Also referred to as acid reflux

16

What type of dysphasia is caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

Esophageal stricture

17

related to throat, nerve. and muscle problems
make it difficult to move food from mouth into your throat
cause may be from brain disorders

oropharyngeal dysphasia

18

Oropharyngeal Dysphagia Chief Manifestations is also called

“high” dysphasia

19

referring to an oral or pharyngeal location
Difficulty initiating swallow
Nasal regurgitation
Coughing
Nasal speech
Diminished cough reflex
Choking

refers to "high" dyspasia

20

swallowing disturbances are found frequently at

in nursing homes, 30–40% of patients have swallowing disturbances = aspiration complications

21

is the passage of food or liquid through the vocal folds into the lungs

aspiration

22

Persons who aspirate are at increased risk for serious respiratory problems
including

airway obstruction and aspiration pneumonia

23

aspiration caused by and may occur with...

often caused by impaired laryngeal closure

May occur with neurological disorders and swallowing dysfunction
overflow of food or liquids retained in the pharynx
gastroesophageal reflux
Aspiration precautions

24

Oropharyngeal dysphagia

Neurological disorders and damage

Pharyngeal diverticula
(collected food particles in the throat, leading to difficulty swallowing, gurgling sounds, bad breath, and repeated throat clearing or coughing

Cancer
Certain cancers and radiation, can cause difficulty swallowing

25

These symptoms are for?
Pain while swallowing (odynophagia)
Unable to swallow
Sensation of food getting stuck in throat or chest
Drooling
Hoarseness
Regurgitation
Frequent heartburn
Food or stomach acid backing up into your throat

swallowing disorders

26

Complications of swallowing disorders

Malnutrition and dehydration
Respiratory problems
aspiration
pneumonia
upper respiratory infections

27

food "sticks" after swallowing

esophageal dyspagia

28

difficulty intiating swallowing (may include coughing, choking, or regurgitation)

oropharygneal dysphagia

29

barium x-ray (fluroscopy)

Swallow a barium solution to coat the esophagus, allows the esophagus to show up better on X-rays
Able to see changes in the esophagus and assess muscle activity
Indications: dysphagia, globus sensation, and aspiration

Dynamic swallowing study.
swallow foods of different consistencies that have been coated with barium
helpful for diagnosing oropharyngeal dysphagia

Barium is an X-ray absorber and appears white on X-ray film.
barium coats the inside wall of the esophagus, stomach, or intestine
Makes visible on x-ray the inside wall lining, size, shape, contour, and patency (openness)
Fluoroscopy is often used during a barium study to study moving body structures—similar to an X-ray "movie"

30

Esophageal Dysphagia Treatment

Esophageal dilation
endoscope with balloon to gently dilate and expand the width of esophagus for tight esophageal sphincter (achalasia) or an esophageal stricture

Surgery
esophageal tumor, achalasia or pharyngeal diverticula, may require surgery

Medications
Difficulty swallowing associated with GERD can be treated with prescription oral medications to reduce stomach acid