amputations Flashcards Preview

human conditions > amputations > Flashcards

Flashcards in amputations Deck (48)
Loading flashcards...
1

Amputation:

BE (below-the-elbow): A specific level of amputation; also known as transradial

Wrist disarticulation: An amputation through the wrist

2

A birth malformation such as an absent or poorly developed limb

Congenital anomaly

3

Congenital absence or partial absence of one or more limbs at birth. Cause may be environmental or genetic

Amelia

4

One or more limbs are missing, with the hand and/or foot attached directly to the trunk

Phocomelia

5

Causes of Limb Loss

Dysvascular related amputations (main cause)
Trauma related amputations
Cancer/infection related amputations
Congenital related amputations

6

Congenital related amputations

Amniotic Band Syndrome/ Constriction Band Syndrone: constriction of fibrous bands within the membrane that surrounds the developing fetus

Teratonegic Agents during 1st trimester such as, drugs, pesticides, thalidomide (60’s)

Genetics

7

97% of lower limb lost is from

dysvascular causes

8

most of upper limb lost is from

trauma

9

Removal of entire shoulder girdle

Interscapulothoracic Amputation

10

Amputation through the shoulder joint

Shoulder Disartication

11

Above the elbow (AE)

Transhumeral Amputation

12

Amputation through the elbow joint

Elbow disarticulation

13

amputation below elbow (BE)

transradial

14

amputation through the radiocarpal joint

wrist disarticulation

15

resection of partial hand

transcarpal amputation

16

Resection of the thumb or fingers at the MCP, PIP, and/or DIP

Transphalangeal Amputation

17

Prosthetic Options

No prosthetic
Passive functional / Cosmetic
Body Powered / Conventional
Myoelectric / External Power
Hybrid
Adaptive

18

Many people with limb loss who are eligible of a prosthesis may choose not to wear one:

Bad first experience
Unnatural look
Reactions from others
Adaptation of one-handed skills
Financial concerns
Unaware of options
Limited functional ability
Lack of sufficient prosthetic training

19

Passive Functional / Cosmetic Advantages

Cosmetic
Lightweight
Little maintenance
Inexpensive (Non-custom silicone)
Great for persons with partial hand amputations
Provides Opposition

20

Passive Functional / Cosmetic Disadvantages

No active prehension
Limited function
Decreased durability
Unreal expectations for cosmesis
Custom silicone is very expensive

21

What is an advantage to wearing a passive functional / cosmetic prosthetic?

Requires little maintenance and is lightweight

22

Body-powered Prosthetics:

Socket or interface
Suspension system
Control cable
Harness
Terminal Devices (TD): hooks or mechanical hands
Wrist unit: connects the TD to the prosthesis and some anatomical wrist function
Possibly:
Triceps cuff (BE)
Hinges (BE)
Elbow (AE)
Shoulder (shoulder disarticulation of higher)

23

Body-Powered Prosthetic advantages

Heavy duty construction
Provides proprioception
Less expensive
Light-weight
Low maintenance

24

Body-Powered Prosthetic disadvantages

Limited grip force (shoulder strength and rubber band tolerance)
Limited functional ROM
Uncomfortable/restrictive harness
Poor cosmesis
Possibility of over-use, Nerve Entrapment Syndrome

25

Which of the following is an advantage to wearing a body-powered prosthetic?

propriception

26

Myoelectric / External Powered

Externally Powered Prosthesis:
Components:
Socket or Interface
Suspension system
Input device
Microprocessor
Battery
TD

Moved by motors and powered batteries
Signal from body tells prosthesis what to
Signal generated by:
Electrical signals generated by muscles

27

Myoelectric / External Powered advantages

Greater functional capacity
Increases cosmesis
Greater grip forces
Reduced or eliminated harness system (increased comfort and ROM)

28

Myoelectric / External Powered disadvantages

Increased cost and maintenance (initially)
Increase weight
Battery

29

Amputation Level
Transradial myotesting

Flexor Carpi Radialis, Flexor Carpi Ulnaris, Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus * Breve, Extensor Digitorum

30

Amputation Level
Transhumeral

Biceps Brachii, Triceps Brachii, Deltoid