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Flashcards in respiratory Deck (30)
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1

what does the respiratory supply the blood with?

Respiratory system supplies oxygen to the blood and removes waste products, primarily carbon dioxide from the blood

2

air moves to the lungs via the

trachae

3

air passageway (all)

nose/mouth --> nasopharnx --> larynx ==>trachae --> main brochi --> brochioles --> alveolar ducts--> alveolar sacs

4

Bronchioles are segmented into smaller passageways called

the alveolar ducts

5

Alveolar duct is divided and leads into three or more

alveolar sacs

6

“the pulmonary tree”

the entire respiratory passageway from bronchi to alveolar sacs is often referred to as

7

Each alveolar sac contains more than 10

alveoli

8

are a fine, semipermeable membrane that separates the alveolus from the capillary network

Alveoli

9

Across this membrane what is transported and exchanged for carbon dioxide?

oxygen

10

Carbon dioxide is exhaled into the air after traveling upward through the

pulmonary tree

11

innervation of breathing

mostly involuntary
ANS controls breathing

12

what happens to inspiration with anxiety and increased activity?

the sympathetic nervous system will automatically increase the depth and rate of inspiration

13

what component of breathing allows us control?

volitional

14

when is rate and depth of breathing changed?

when receptors within and outside the lungs are stimulated

15

what brain areas adjust the response to input from receptors in the lungs, aorta, and carotid artery?

The pons and medulla adjust their response to input from the receptors in the lungs, aorta and carotid artery

16

Progressive, chronic disease
Includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis
The air sacs of the lungs (alveoli) are damaged
Lose their elasticity and may become clogged with mucus
Making it difficult to breathe
No cure
Damage is irreversible

COPD

17

Medical condition in which the alveoli are gradually damaged
Leading cause is smoking
Air pollution, marijuana smoke and particles produced in manufacturing are also contributing causes
Individuals with chronic bronchitis experience shortness of breath (dyspnea) on exertion and as the disease progresses dyspnea occurs at rest

Emphysema

18

This is where the bronchial airway becomes inflamed = airway obstructions
The airway is constantly irritated resulting in chronic cough and mucus
Common cause is smoking

bronchitis

19

Prone to upper respiratory infections?
Individuals are unlikely to recover fully

chronic bronchitis

20

Thickening of the connective tissue (narrows air terminal)
Smoking and pollutants irritate the airways = abnormal terminal airways
Coughing and spitting up mucus
May never evolve past initial stage, but it can develop into emphysema and COPD

fibrosis

21

Major cause of severe chronic respiratory disease in children and young adults
Inherited (autosomal recessive trait- mutation of the long arm of chromosome 7)
Occurs more frequently in populations of northern Europe, North America and Australia/New Zealand in those individuals who are Caucasian
Pancreatic exocrine deficiency
Elevation of sodium chloride in the sweat
Nasal polyps, sinus infections, and pancreatitis are common

cystic fibrosis

22

Early diagnoss/treatment are important in delaying the onset and severity
Early aggressive treatment measures to slow the progression
Antibiotics (to manage infections)
Chest physical therapy (percussion and postural drainage)
Mucolytic agents (to prevent airway obstruction)
Nutritional therapy (pancreatic enzymes)
90% have complete loss of exocrine pancreatic function and inadequate digestion of fats and proteins

cystic fibrosis

23

Surgical procedure
Small incision made in the trachea (anterior aspect of the neck) to allow air to pass freely to the lungs
This is performed when the trachea or pharynx becomes blocked

tracheostomy

24

One of the most important causes of acute upper respiratory tract infections
Typically occurs during the winter months in the United States (January to March)
Accounts for 35,000 deaths annually

influenza

25

in influenza rates of infection are highest among

children

26

in influenza rates of death are highest among

geriatric population (65+)

27

Caused by a virus (Orthomyxoviridae family)

influenza

28

Which influenzas cause epidemics?

Infleunza A and B

29

result from the ability of the influenza virus to develop new subtypes for which the population is not protected

Epidemics and pandemics

30

Which influenza does not cause epidemics but is responsible for mild upper respiratory infections in children?

Influenza C