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this pathogen that can spread rapidly to the skin, causing cellulitis?

skin and soft tissue cellulitis
(strep and strap)


this condition has declining muscle mass, strength, and function, with
muscle atrophy (40% decrease in mus. mass by 80s)



in this condition there is a fracture risk and stooped posture, as well as a loss of bone mass as bones get weaker



- fracture risk, stooped posture
- bone disease when body loses too much bone
o bones become weak and may break



Common older adults clinical syndrome
Increased risk for poor health outcomes (falls, disability, hospitalization, mortality)
Can be described as a culmination of the effects (decline) from the aging process on the human body
Difficult to define, but clinicians generally agree that “you’ll know it when you see it”
Sarcopenia – declining muscle mass, strength, and function,
Muscle atrophy (40% decrease in mus. mass by 80s)
Osteopenia & osteoporosis (fracture risk, stooped posture)
Decreased mobility, sedentary
Involuntary weight loss



IQ 20 to 34
considerable delays in development\
understands speech, but little ability to communicate
able to learn daily routines
may learn v simple self-care
needs direct supervision in social situations

severe intellectual disability


IQ 50 to 70
slower than typical in all developmental areas
no usual physical characteristics
able to learn practical life skills
attains reading and math skills up to grade levels 3 to 6
able to blend in socially
functions in daily life
represents 1 example of somone with ID

mild intellectual disability


noticeable developmental delays (speech, motor skills)
may have physical signs of impairment (thick tongue)
able to learn basic health and safety skills
can complete self care activities
can travel alone to near and familiar places

modereate intellectual disability


IQ less than 20
significant developmental delays
obv physical and congential abnormalities
requires close supervision
requires attendant to help in self-care
may respond to physical/social activities
not capable of independent living

profound intellectual disability


A person may require repeated reminders throughout the day during the _____ of dementia?

middle stage


High risk group for the development of HIV

- sexual contact (female hetero and male homo)
- black/hispanics


- Hypoxic ischemic injury
- Traumatic brain injury
- Infections
- Demyelinating disorders
- Seizure disorders (e.g., infantile spasms)
- Severe and chronic social deprivation
- Toxic metabolic syndromes and intoxications (e.g., lead, mercury)

causes of ID during postnatal period


symptoms of hyperglycemia

 Increased levels of glucose
 Dehydration
 Hot red flushed skin
 Abdominal pain
 Fruity odor on the breath
 Confusion, visual disturbances
 3 Ps


controable risk factors for dementia prevention

o Alcohol Use
o Cardiovascular health
o Diabetes
o Smoking


- “insulin dependent diabetes”
- also called Immune-Mediated Diabetes

type 1 diabetes


- defined by the presence of one or more genetic autoimmune markers.
- Affects 5-10% of people who have diabetes
- Commonly occurs in children & adolescence but can occur at any age

type 1 diabetes


Due to cellular-mediated autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic b-cells, usually eventually leading to absolute insulin deficiency
- Rate of destruction varies; faster in children than adults

type 1 diabetes


ay have other autoimmune conditions
- typically not obese
- no known etiology
- Symptoms of diabetes without any evidence of autoimmunity

type 1 diabetes


- Need for insulin may be episodic
- Though this only affects a minority of people with diabetes, this affects people of mostly African or Asian ancestry
- Strongly inherited but not associated with autoimmune genetic markers

type 1 diabetes


 Most common form of diabetes
 Used to be called “noninsulin-dependent diabetes” or “adult onset diabetes,”

type 2 diabetes


Initially, and often throughout their lifetime, these individuals may not need insulin treatment to survive but they may.
 Affects 90% - 95% of people who have diabetes
 Children get it too now
 The risk of developing type 2 diabetes increases with age, obesity, and lack of physical activity

type 2 diabetes


 have insulin resistance and usually relative (rather than absolute) insulin deficiency.

type 2 diabetes


what is HIV?

HIV is a retrovirus that attacks the immune system.
Its genetic material, RNA, must be converted in to DNA during replication.
Over time, the immune system and the body loses its ability to fight the virus.
AIDS is characterized by certain infections that take advantage of the body’s weakened immune system.


what is septic arthritis?

infection in the joint


A condition of muscle mass loss.
discuss the percentage of muscle mass loss

- sarcopenia
 Muscle atrophy (40% decrease in mus. mass by 80s)


 “lazy eye”
 Characterized by a decrease in visual acuity resulting from atypical visual development
 Infancy or childhood
 Condition can be prevented from worsening
 Early detection (vision screening)
 Condition may be reversible
 TX is successful if started early in childhood



blindness in one eye (visual field defect)



half of the visual field lost



 eye movement disorder
 eyes are not aligned properly and point in different directions.
 Results in loss of binocular vision
 Binocular Vision:
 The ability to maintain visual focus on an object with both eyes, creating a single visual image
 Distortions in depth perceptions and visual measurement of distance
 Dependent on extraocular muscles
 Medial and lateral recti
 Superior and inferior recti



degeneration in the central portion of the retina, resulting in loss of central vision.

macular degeneration