Flashcards in midterm questions! Deck (65)
What is a treatment for Dupuytrens contracture?
a. Collagen injected into the Dupuytren tissue
b. Needle aponeurotomy to cut the tissue
c. Skin grafts
What is the conservative treatment for Impingement Syndrome (shoulder bursitis/rotator cuff tendonitis)?
a. Relieve pain and rest the joint to reduce swelling
c. avoid overhead activities
d. cortisone injections
What is a sign of scaphoid fracture?
a. Deep, dull pain in the radial side of the wrist that worsens with gripping or squeezing
b. Swelling and bruising
c. Tenderness to palpation of the anatomical snuffbox
Which condition has symptoms of pain to the lateral epicondyle area when gripping?
a. Elbow lateral epicondylitis “Tennis Elbow”
Which layer does damage usually occur in a contusion?
Damage usually occurs in the layer closest to the bone.
Which brachial plexus injury has the most poor prognosis?
Neurotmesis- entire nerve has been divided
Which nerve injury is the least severe?
Neuropraxia- temporary conduction block in the nerve. Recovery can take up to 12 weeks.
During which brachial plexus injury is the nerve pulled out from the spinal cord?
The two main elements of empowerment and accountability are part of which model of disability?
Rights-based model perspective
Which model of disability implies the removal of attitudinal, physical, and institutional barriers will improve the lives of disabled people?
Social model of disability
What are two potential complications of a scaphoid fracture?
a. Non-union of bone fragments
b. Avascular necrosis of scaphoid
What causes a Boutonniere deformity?
a. Forceful blow to bent finger
- PIP joint will be flexed, while DIP joint is extended.
Which type of fracture shatters the bone into many pieces?
Comminuted fractures usually occur from a high energy force and are often unstable
Which fracture has a risk of infection?
Compound fractures break through the skin
Which direction approach is the most common for a total hip replacement?
What is the most common grade of ACL injury?
Grade 3- complete tear of the ligament where the ligament splits into two pieces and creates an unstable knee joint.
When is a partial or total hip replacement considered for treatment?
When optimal realignment of the fracture is not possible or practical with internal fixation
What is the most common metabolic bone disorder?
What term is used to describe loss of bone density?
What is the cause of the primary type of Osteoporosis?
Age related bone loss (senile osteoporosis) or the cause may be unknown (idiopathic osteoporosis)
Which class of drugs has a long onset of action?
Disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) can take several weeks or months to demonstrate a clinical effect
How do Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) work? Ex. Aspirin, ibuprofen, etc.
Work by blocking production of prostaglandins.
Prostaglandins cause pain, swelling, and inflammation.
Which class of drugs works to prevent release of substances in the body that cause inflammation?
Glucocorticoids (corticosteroids/ steroid medications)
What is a condition that occurs as a side effect of taking corticosteroids?
a. Cushing syndrome and cushingoind appearance. (weight gain and fat desposits around face)
b. High blood pressure, high blood sugar, risk of cataracts, and avascular necrosis of bones.
Which class of drugs has been shown to alter the disease course of rheumatoid arthritis and improve radiographic outcomes?
Disease Modifying Anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDS)
What are the phases of wound healing?
Inflammation (1-3 days), Proliferation (1-2 weeks), Remodeling or maturation (1-2 years)
What are the types of wound debridement?
Autolytic, Enzymatic, Surgical, Mechanical, and Maggot
What may be the result of constant pressure and friction resulting from weight over a localized area for prolonged duration?
Which degree burn extends only beyond the Epidermis?