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Flashcards in cardio Deck (43)
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1

Type of heart disease that develops when the arteries of the heart cannot deliver enough oxygen-rich blood to the heart

Coronary Heart Disease

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Refers to variety of conditions that affect the heart’s structure and function
It is the leading cause of death in the United States

Heart Disease

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#1 cause of death in men & women in the U.S.

Heart Disease Statistics

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Types of Heart disease

Coronary Artery Disease (Heart Disease)
Heart Attack (Myocardial infarction)
Arrhythmia (Irregular heartbeat)
Sudden Cardiac Arrests
Heart Valve Disease
Heart failure (Congestive Heart Failure)

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General symptoms of heart disease:

More specific symptoms are listed for the specific heart condition

In general, common symptoms include:
- Chest pain = Angina
- Breathlessness
- Heart palpitations

Symptoms specific to Heart Attack
- Similar to angina, but more severe or occur during rest
- Can resemble indigestion, heartburn, and a stomach ache
- Heavy feeling in the chest

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Chest pain or discomfort that occurs if an area of your heart muscle doesn't get enough oxygen-rich blood
May feel like pressure or squeezing in your chest
Pain also can occur in your shoulders, arms, neck, jaw, or back, may even feel like indigestion

angina

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angina types

Types
Stable
Unstable
Variant
Microvascular

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is a symptom of an underlying heart problem
may be a major warning sign
usually of coronary heart disease, but not a disease itself

angina

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Most common type of angina
Occurs when the heart is working harder than usual
Has a regular pattern (referring to how often and severity)

stable angina

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Doesn't follow a pattern
May occur more often and be more severe than stable angina
Can occur with or without physical exertion, often when sleeping or resting, comes as a surprise
Rest or medicine may not relieve the pain
Very dangerous and requires emergency treatment
Is a sign that a heart attack may happen soon

unstable angina

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rare and can be severe
spasm in a coronary artery causes this type of angina
usually occurs while sleeping at night
Medicine can relieve this type of angina

variant angina (Printzmetal's)

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can be more severe and last longer than other types
Medicine may not relieve this type of angina

microvascular angina

13

Often referred to as heart disease

Coronary Blood Supply
Coronary arteries supply the heart muscle with nutrients and oxygen by circulating blood.
Coronary arteries can become diseased or damaged
Damage may be related to atherosclerosis
hardening of the arteries
plaque builds up inside the arteries
May cause heart attacks, ischemic strokes, heart failures, arrhythmias, heart valve problems

coronary artery disease

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Damage to the heart muscle
Due to lack of blood to the heart
Often occur as a result of coronary heart disease
Plaque can rupture, causing a blood clot to form
Large enough clot can completely block coronary artery
If not treated quickly, affected portion of heart muscle begins to die, and healthy heart tissue is replaced with scar tissue

heart attack (mechanical!)

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Heart Attack Symptom Progression

Heart attacks can start slowly
Symptoms can be mild, or more intense and sudden
Symptoms may also come and go over several hours

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Heart Attack Symptom: Men & Women

The most common symptom in both men and women, is chest pain or discomfort (angina)
In the center or left side of the chest
1/3rd who had heart attacks did not experience chest pain
these are more likely to be older, female, or diabetic

Upper body discomfort: one or both arms, back, shoulder, neck, jaw or upper part of stomach (above the belly button)
Shortness of breath
Breaking out in a cold sweat
Feeling unusually tired for no reason, sometimes for days
Nausea and vomiting
Light-headedness or sudden dizziness

***Women may likely have shortness of breath, nausea and vomiting, unusual tiredness, and pain

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Other Heart Attack Symptoms

Upper body discomfort
Pain or discomfort in one or both arms, back, shoulder, neck, jaw or upper part of stomach (above the belly button)
Shortness of breath
Breaking out in a cold sweat
Feeling unusually tired for no reason, sometimes for days
Nausea and vomiting
Light-headedness or sudden dizziness
Chest pain or discomfort (angina) that doesn’t go away or changes from its usual pattern

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Heart can beat too fast, too slow, or with an irregular rhythm
Typical heart rate (heartbeat) = 60 -100 times per minute
Can beat faster with exercise
Can slow down while sleep
Normal: slows down and speeds up
A heartbeat that is:
Too fast: tachycardia
Too slow: bradycardia
Sometimes heart is too slow and sometimes too fast: Tachycardia-bradycardia syndrome

Heart Arrhythmias

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Symptoms:
Feeling faint/tired
Light-headed or passing out
Shortness of breath
Chest pain or discomfort
Palpitations (skipped beats that feel like thumping, fluttering, racing heart)
May have no symptoms

heart arrthymias

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Causes of this
Heart disease
Infections or fever
Physical/emotional stress
Drugs and other stimulants (caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, amphetamines, etc.)
Genes

heart arrythimias

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impact of arrthymias

Can be serious or even life threatening
heart may not be able to pump enough blood to the body
atria to quiver instead of contract

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Two types: Heart Arrhythmias

Ventricular: Starts from heart’s ventricles
Supraventricular: Starts outside or above the ventricles
- Atrial fibrillation

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Heart Arrhythmias tests

EKG: Records the heart’s rhythm
Ultrasound: Picture of the heart’s structure and function

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Treatment for Heart Arrhythmias

Cardiac ablation (heart tissue causing faulty heartbeat is removed)
Cardioverter defibrillator (ICD): inserted in chest; resets the heart rhythm

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Atrial Fibrillation (AF or AFib)

”Fibrillate“ definition = super fast HR!
AFiB can
Increase the risk of forming blood clots leading to strokes, or heart failure because of blood pools in the atrium
Cause chest pain or heart failure

Cardiac ablation
works by scarring or destroying tissue in your heart that triggers an abnormal heart rhythm

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Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA)

Heart suddenly and unexpectedly stops beating
Is an electrical malfunction of the heart, disrupting the heart's normal rhythm
If untreated, this abrupt loss of heart function results in sudden cardiac death

95% of people who have SCA die from it - most within minutes
SCA is not the same as a heart attack
Heart attack occurs if blood flow to the heart muscle is blocked
During a heart attack, the heart usually does not stop beating
However, SCA may occur after a heart attack

27

Symptoms of SCA

Symptoms:
Prior: Racing heartbeat, dizziness, or nothing
During: sudden collapse, loss of conscious, no pulse, no breathing

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Heart conditions that can lead to SCA

CAD
Enlarged heart
Valvular heart disease
Congenital heart disease
Electrical

The most common heart rhythm at the time of cardiac arrest is an arrhythmia in a ventricle causing the ventricle to quiver instead of pumping blood

29

Risk Factors of SCA

illegal drugs such as cocaine, nutritional imbalance (low potassium), chronic apnea, chronic kidney disease
More common in males

30

Heart Valve Disease

Birth defects, age-related changes, infections, or other conditions cause one or more heart valves to not open fully or close; blood leaks back into the heart
Congenital heart valve disease: valves don’t form properly (not enough tissue flaps, wrong size/shape, may have an opening in which blood can get through)
Many people do not have any symptoms until middle-age or older