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Flashcards in hearing and balance Deck (19)
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1

outer ear

Gathers sound and allow it to pass through the air canal to the eardrum

2

middle ear

Amplify the sound

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inner ear

Translate sound into vibration into electrical signals

4

conductive hearing loss (CHL)

Pathology of the outer and/or middle ear which causes a loss in the conduction of the sound through the system.
Most can be medically treated

5

what conditions are associated with CHL?

Ear infection (otitis media)
Perforated eardrum
Benign tumors
Otosclerosis: abnormal growth of bone in the ears
Impacted earwax (cerumen)
Infection in the ear canal (external otitis)
Presence of a foreign body
Absence or malformation of the outer ear, ear canal, or middle ear

6

Sensorineural (SNHL)

Damage to the sensory cells in the cochlea or along the auditory neural pathway.

7

Conditions associated with SNHL:

Noise induced hearing loss
Ototoxicity: toxic to the ear – generally medication side effects
Meniere’s disease- inner ear disorder that impacts balance and hearing
Acoustic Neuroma/Vestibular Schwannoma - tumors
Presbycusis: most common type caused by natural aging
Viral

8

Meniere's Disease

Sensorineural disorder of the inner ear
Cause unknown
Suspected cause is fluid in the tubes of the inner ear, autoimmune disease, allergies, genetics
Symptoms include episodes of:
Dizziness
Vertigo (sensation of spinning)
Ringing sound (tinnitus)
Hearing Problems
Feeling of fullness
Usually only in one ear

9

Prebycusis

Sensorineural disorder of the inner ear or blood supply
Age related gradual hearing loss in both ears
1/3 adults
People not always aware
Symptoms:
Speech sounds mumbled
Tinnitus
Deep voice easier to hear
Most often affects ability to hear high-pitched noises (“s” and “th”)
Causes:
Most likely due to a loss of hair cells
Can be due to changes in blood supply to the ear

10

mixed hearing loss

A combination of sensorimotor hearing loss (SNHL) and conductive hearing loss (CHL)

For example: A client has an ear infection causing a CHL and has age related SNHL

11

otoscopy

Visual inspection of outer ear
- Pinna
- External auditory meatus (ear canal)
- Tympanic membrane (eardrum)

12

immitance testing

Localizes the part of the ear involved in hearing loss
Probe put into the middle ear

Tympanometry

Acoustic reflex thresholds

13

Acoustic reflex thresholds

Measures the contraction of the stapedius muscle in response to a loud sound
Helps with site of lesion; various patterns

14

tympanometry

Diagnoses conductive issues
Not a hearing test
Pressure is placed on the eardrum
Measure the movement of the eardrum at various pressures
At what pressure does the sound go through to from the outer to the middle ear

15

tympanometry

By understanding how much sound is reflected back during this test we can tell how much energy can transmit through the middle ear

Results:
Scarring in the middle ear
Earwax
Lack of mobility of the ossicles
Fluid in the middle ear
Perforation of the eardrum

16

audiometry

Tests how well your hearing functions: range and sensitivity
Can tell you if and what type of hearing aid is needed
Headphones
Raise hand when hear a tone or speech sound is heard in one ear or the other
Records minimum volume to hear a tone
Tests the intensity sounds
Whisper (20 dB)
Loud music (80-120 dB)
Jet engine (140-180 dB)
Sounds greater than 85 can cause hearing loss
Tests the tone of sounds
Loss bass tones (50-60 Hz)
High pitched sounds (10,000 Hz or greater)
Normal is 20, 20,000 Hz
balance issues

17

audiogram

This is the graphic record produced by audiometry

18

hearing loss management

Medical management is needed first (if required)
Amplification
Implantable devices
Assistive Listening Devices
Aural Rehabilitation/Habilitation
Periodic re-evaluation

19

assistive listening devices

apps