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Flashcards in infectious diseases Deck (25)
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infectious diseases are

A set of symptoms attributable to the introduction of a specific pathogen


Pathogens generally fall into three categories:

Bacteria, virus, and fungus


top 10 infectious diseases

HIV Stage III (Formerly AIDS)
Hepatitis B
Lyme Disease


Others that OTs see

Compartment Syndrome
Dog & cat bites
Wounds - infected
Respiratory infections
Arthritis - chronic inflammatory & autoimmune disorders
Post encephalitis - post meningitis
Hepatitis C


Illness severity is dependent on several factors

Virility of the pathogen
Inherent disease trajectory
Premorbid health of the person with infection
Health related resources
Access to quality care


Visual Aid

Recognition of the pathogen as foreign, isolation of the pathogen, and destruction of the pathogen and it is the immune system that attempts to interfere with the reproduction of pathogen
antigens attached to pathogen and stimulate the body’s production of antibodies

It is the immune system’ s job to limit the replication of pathogen (thus decreasing illness and its symptoms)


Pharmacology for infectious diseases

Science that developed antibiotic, antiviral, antiretroviral, and antifungal drugs to assist the immune system in fighting and resisting disease producing pathogens


Vaccines for infectious diseases

Use of small amounts of live or killed pathogens to trigger the immune responses that either prevent illness or minimize its effect


Skin and Soft Tissue Cellulitis

a rapidly spreading infection within the skin and the fatty subcutaneous tissue
Caused by bacteria, usually through a breach in the skin (may be microscopic), most common cause of cellulitis
Nonpurulent cellulitis


4 cardinal signs of infection for skin and soft tissue cellulitis



Common Cellulitis Pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus

most common skin infection, usually occurs in open wounds or pus-filled pockets (abcesses)


Common Cellulitis Pathogens: Streptococcus pneumoniae

more common in the respiratory tract, but can spread rapidly in the skin

Can be a more serious infection with
Violaceous (purple) color

Bullae (fluid filled sac)


where is violaceous found?

in strep (respiratory but sometimes skin)


MRSA Mode of Transmission in Hospital

Most commonly by “transiently contaminated hands of healthcare workers”
Also from contaminated environmental surfaces and medical equipment
Healthcare workers can acquire MRSA from patient contact
And by contact with contaminated surfaces in hospital rooms



Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus
Bacteria resistant to many drugs (methicillin and other penicillin drugs

MSRA Treatment:


MRSA patient risk factors

Prolonged ICU care
Invasive devices
Patients colonized with MRSA (MRSA can asymptomatically live in nose and on skin)
Contact with contaminated wounds or inanimate objects
Patients in rehabilitation facilities
Patients in nursing homes


hand washing

On average, healthcare providers
clean their hands less than half
of the times they should (CDC)

scrub for 20 sec


hand hygiene

use of alcohol-based hand rubs and handwashing with soap and water

Use of alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) is the primary mode of hand hygiene in healthcare settings recommended by the CDC and WHO

Except when hands are visibly soiled (e.g., dirt, blood, body fluids) or after caring for patients with infectious diarrhea
It is active against a broad spectrum of epidemiologically important pathogens
Requires less time, irritates hands less, and facilitates hand hygiene at the patient bedside
Compared with soap and water, ABHR can increase compliance with recommended hand hygiene practices


sepsis (celllulitis complications)

Develops when the chemicals the immune system releases into the bloodstream to fight infection cause inflammation throughout the entire body

Body’s overwhelming response to infection
Can lead to tissue damage, organ failure, and death
Difficult to predict, diagnose, and treat
Systemic infection in the blood

Which can cause low blood pressure and organ damage
Increased risk of complications and death
Higher healthcare costs and longer treatment


Antibiotics Misuse a Factor

Antibiotic overuse and inappropriate use bear a heavy responsibility for creating the superbug crisis we are facing today

Pervasive misuse of antibiotics by the agriculture industry also plays a significant role
Agriculture accounts for about 80 percent of all antibiotics used in the US


MRSA prevention

Prevention: healthcare providers should
Maintain good hand hygiene (wet, lather, scrub, rinse, dry)
Hand washing is the best preventative measure against the spread of infection
Wear gloves and gowns when with infected patients and when instructed
Wear gloves if break in skin (e.g. due to paper cut; abrasion)
Gloves are not a substitute for hand washing


worm diseases

Helminth (worm) infections infect 3 billion people (half the planet)

Most parasite infections are a nuisance, but can be serious and is the leading cause of global morbidity and mortality
Lymphatic filariasis (round worms) live in the lymph system

Transmitted by mosquitoes primarily Asia & Africa
Repeated mosquito bites over months to yrs needed
Can cause elephantiasis


Infection Control Protocol

1) Hand hygiene
2) Use of personal protective equipment (e.g., gloves, gowns, masks)
3) Safe injection practices
4) Safe handling of potentially contaminated equipment or surfaces in the patient environment
5) Respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette


transmission-based precautions

Contact Precautions
For patients with known or suspected infections that represent an increased risk for contact transmission.
Droplet Precautions
For patients known or suspected to be infected with pathogens transmitted by respiratory droplets that are generated by a patient who is coughing, sneezing, or talking.
Airborne Precautions
For patients known or suspected to be infected with pathogens transmitted by the airborne route (e.g., tuberculosis, measles, chickenpox, disseminated herpes zoster).


key situations when to wash hands

Before touching a patient, even if gloves will be worn
Before exiting the patient’s care area after touching the patient or the patient’s immediate environment
After contact with blood, body fluids or excretions, or wound dressings
Prior to performing an aseptic task (e.g., placing an IV, preparing an injection)
If hands will be moving from a contaminated-body site to a clean-body site during patient care
After glove removal