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AP Psychology > History and Approaches > Flashcards

Flashcards in History and Approaches Deck (31):
1

introspection

the purposeful and rational self-observation of one's mental state; first wave of psychology

2

trephination

a operation used by Stone Age humans that removes a circular section of bone from the skull

3

Wilhelm Wundt

set up the first psychological laboratory, trained subjects in introspection

4

structuralism

the idea that the mind operates by combining subjective emotions and objective sensations

5

William James

published psychology's first textbook: The Principles of Psychology, created functionalism

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functionalism

explains how the structures in structuralism function in our lives

7

Gestalt psychology

examined a person's total experience, not just bits and pieces of it; second wave of psychology

8

Max Wertheimer

a Gestalt psychologist

9

psychoanalysis

human behavior, experience, and cognition are largely determined by irrational drives; third wave of psychology

10

Sigmund Freud

created psychoanalytic theory

11

unconscious mind

a part of the mind that we do not have conscious control that determines, in part, how we think and behave

12

repression

the pushing down into the unconscious events and feelings that cause so much anxiety and tension that our conscious mind cannot deal with them

13

defense mechanism

psychological strategies brought into play by the unconscious mind to manipulate, deny, or distort reality

14

behaviorism

psychologists should only look at behavior and causes of behavior, not elements of consciousness; fourth wave of psychology; dominant school of thought from the 1920s to 1960s

15

John Watson

studied Ivan Pavlov's conditioning experiments, main proponent of behaviorism

16

stimuli

environmental events

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responses

physical reactions

18

B.F. Skinner

behaviorist, expanded the ideas to include reinforcement

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reinforcement

environmental stimuli that either encourage or discourage certain responses

20

eclectic

drawing from multiple perspectives of psychology; fifth wave of psychology; most current psychologists are eclectic

21

humanism

stresses individual choice and free will, most of our behaviors are chosen due to physiological, emotional, or spiritual needs

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Abraham Maslow

humanist

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Carl Rogers

humanist

24

biopsychology

explains human thought and behavior in terms of biological processes only

25

evolutionary psychologists (sociobiologists)

examine human thoughts and actions in terms of natural selection

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natural selection

favorable traits for survival will be passed down and preserved

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cognitive psychologists

examine human thought and behavior in terms of how we interpret, process, and remember environmental events

28

social-cultural psychologists

looks at how human thought and behavior varies from culture to culture

29

comparative psychologists

look at the psychology of non-human animals

30

overt behavior

Behavior that has the potential for being directly observed by an individual other than the one performing the behavior.

31

covert behavior

Behavior that can be subjectively perceived only by the person performing the behavior. Thoughts and feelings are covert behaviors.