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AP Psychology > Cognition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cognition Deck (70)
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1

three-box/information-processing model

sensory, encoding, short-term/working, long-term and retrieval

2

George Sperling

demonstrated sensory memory by flashing a grid of 9 letters for 1/20th of a second

3

sensory memory

a split-second holding tank for incoming sensory information

4

iconic memory

a split-second perfect photograph of a scene

5

echoic memory

a split-second perfect memory of a sound

6

selective attention

determines what is encoded from sensory memory to short-term memory

7

short-term (working) memory

memories currently using and are aware of in consciousness

8

chunking

grouping items in about 7

9

mnemonic aids

memory aids

10

rehearse

repeat

11

long-term memory

permanent storage

12

episodic memory

memories of specific events, stored in a sequential series of events

13

semantic memory

general knowledge of the world, stored as facts, meanings, or categories rather than sequentially

14

procedural memory

memories of skills and how to perform them

15

explicit (declarative) memory

conscious memories of facts or events we actively tried to remember

16

implicit (nondeclarative) memory

unintentional memories that we might not even realize we have

17

eidetic (photographic) memory

the ability to remember with great accuracy visual information on the basis of short-term exposure

18

Alexandra Luria

studied a patient with eidetic memory who could repeat a list of 70 letters or digits and remember it up to 15 years later

19

levels of processing model

- long/short-term memory doesn't exist

20

retrieval

two types of retrieval: recognition and recall

21

recognition

the process of matching a current event or fact with one already in memory

22

recall

retrieving a memory with an external cue

23

primacy effect

predicts that we are more likely to recall items presented at the beginning of a list

24

recency effect

predicts that we are more likely to recall items presented at the end of a list

25

serial position effect (curve)

when recall of a list is affected by the order of items in a list

26

tip-of-the-tongue-phenomenon

condition of being almost, but not quite, able to remember something; used to investigate the nature of semantic memory

27

semantic network theory

memories are linked to one another like spiderwebs

28

flashbulb memory

highly detailed memory of the moment and circumstances in which a piece of surprising news is heard

29

state-dependent memory

recalling events encoded while in a particular state of consciousness, like sleepiness

30

mood congruent memory

the greater likelihood of recalling an item when our mood matches the mood we were in when the event happened