Cognition Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > Cognition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cognition Deck (70):
1

three-box/information-processing model

sensory, encoding, short-term/working, long-term and retrieval

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George Sperling

demonstrated sensory memory by flashing a grid of 9 letters for 1/20th of a second

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sensory memory

a split-second holding tank for incoming sensory information

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iconic memory

a split-second perfect photograph of a scene

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echoic memory

a split-second perfect memory of a sound

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selective attention

determines what is encoded from sensory memory to short-term memory

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short-term (working) memory

memories currently using and are aware of in consciousness

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chunking

grouping items in about 7

9

mnemonic aids

memory aids

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rehearse

repeat

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long-term memory

permanent storage

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episodic memory

memories of specific events, stored in a sequential series of events

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semantic memory

general knowledge of the world, stored as facts, meanings, or categories rather than sequentially

14

procedural memory

memories of skills and how to perform them

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explicit (declarative) memory

conscious memories of facts or events we actively tried to remember

16

implicit (nondeclarative) memory

unintentional memories that we might not even realize we have

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eidetic (photographic) memory

the ability to remember with great accuracy visual information on the basis of short-term exposure

18

Alexandra Luria

studied a patient with eidetic memory who could repeat a list of 70 letters or digits and remember it up to 15 years later

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levels of processing model

- long/short-term memory doesn't exist

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retrieval

two types of retrieval: recognition and recall

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recognition

the process of matching a current event or fact with one already in memory

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recall

retrieving a memory with an external cue

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primacy effect

predicts that we are more likely to recall items presented at the beginning of a list

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recency effect

predicts that we are more likely to recall items presented at the end of a list

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serial position effect (curve)

when recall of a list is affected by the order of items in a list

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tip-of-the-tongue-phenomenon

condition of being almost, but not quite, able to remember something; used to investigate the nature of semantic memory

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semantic network theory

memories are linked to one another like spiderwebs

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flashbulb memory

highly detailed memory of the moment and circumstances in which a piece of surprising news is heard

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state-dependent memory

recalling events encoded while in a particular state of consciousness, like sleepiness

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mood congruent memory

the greater likelihood of recalling an item when our mood matches the mood we were in when the event happened

31

Elizabeth Loftus

showed that recovered memories could be constructed or false recollections of events

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constructed memory

may report false details of a real event or might even be a recollection of an event that never occured

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decay

not using a memory or connections to a memory for a long period of time

34

relearning

after learning and forgetting, learning again becomes faster

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interference

other information competes with what you're trying to recall

36

retroactive interference

learning new information interferes with the recall of older information

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proactive interference

old information interferes with the recall of newer information

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anterograde amnesia

old memories can be recalled, new memories (except procedural) cannot be made

39

long-term potention

repeated firings between neurons strengthen the connection between them

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phonemes

the smallest units of sound used in a language

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morphemes

the smallest unit of meaningful sound

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language acquisition

natural unconscious process of language development in humans that occurs without instruction, but needs exposure

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language acquisition theory

the ability to learn a language rapidly as children

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Noam Chomsky

language acquisition device

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language acquisition device

the ability to learn a language quickly as children

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babbling stage

innate, represents a baby's experimentation with phonemes

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telegraphic

second stage in language acquisition

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overgeneralization

misapplication of grammar rules

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linguistic relativity hypothesis

Benjamin Whorf

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prototype

what concepts are based on, the most typical example of a particular concept

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image

mental pictures created in mind, not necessarily visual

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algorithm

a problem solving technique that guarantees the correct solution by trying every possibility

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heuristic

a rule of thumb, generally but not always true

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availability heuristic

judging a situation based on examples of similar situations that come to mind initially

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representativeness heuristic

judging a situation based on how similar the aspects are to prototypes the person holds in his or her mind

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belief bias

illogical conclusions in order to confirm our preexisting beliefs

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belief perseverance

tendency to maintain a belief even after the evidence we used to form the belief is contradicted

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rigidity (mental set)

the tendency to fall into established thought patterns

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functional fixedness

an example of rigidity

60

confirmation bias

the tendency to look for evidence that confirms our beliefs and ignore evidence that contradicts what we think is true

61

framing

the way a problem is presented

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creativity

original/novel but still fits the situation

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convergent thinking

thinking pointed toward one solution

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divergent thinking

thinking that searches for multiple possible answers to a question

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brain plasticity

the ability of other parts of the brain to take over functions of damaged regions. Declines as hemispheres of the cerebral cortex lateralize.

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adrenal glands

produce adrenaline, which causes rest of body to go into fight or flight mode

67

Thomas Bouchard

conducted study on identical twins that found a correlation of 0.69 on IQ, criticized because their similar appearances may have led to their being treated similarly

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Turner's syndrome

only one X chromosome in the 23rd pair

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Klinefelter's syndrome

extra X chromosome

70

Down's syndrome

extra chromosome on the 21st pair