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Flashcards in Biological Bases of Behavior Deck (66)
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1

neuroanatomy

the study of the parts and function of neurons

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neurons

individual nerve cells that make up our entire nervous system

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dendrites

rootlike parts of the nerve cell that stretch out from the cell body; grow to make synaptic connections with other neurons

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cell body (soma)

contains the nucleus and other parts of the cell needed to sustain its life

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axon

wirelike structure ending in the terminal buttons that extends from the cell body

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myelin sheath

a fatty covering around the axon that speeds neural impulses

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terminal buttons

also called: end buttons, terminal branches of axon, synaptic knobs

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neurotransmitters

chemicals contained in terminal buttons that enable neurons to communicate

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synapse

the space beween the terminal buttons of one neuron and the dendrites of the next neurons

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action potential

the local voltage change across the cell wall as a nerve impulse is transmitted

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function of acetylcholine

motor movement

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lack of acetylcholine

Alzheimer's disease

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function of dopamine

motor movement and alertness

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lack of dopamine

Parkinson's disease

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overabundance of dopamine

schizophrenia

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function of endorphins

pain control; involved in addictions

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function of serotonin

mood control

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lack of serotonin

associated with clinical depression

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afferent neurons

neurons that take information from the senses to the brain

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interneurons

in the brain or spinal cord, neurons that take messages and send them elsewhere in the brain or spinal cord

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efferent neurons

neurons that take information from the brain to the rest of the body

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Central Nervous System

consists of the brain and spinal cord; nerves encased in bone

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Peripheral Nervous System

consists of nerves not encased in bone

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Somatic Nervous System

controls voluntary muscle movements

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Autonomic Nervous System

controls the automatic functions of our body

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Sympathetic Nervous System

part of the Autonomic Nervous System

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Parasympathetic Nervous System

part of the Autonomic Nervous System

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Phineas Gage

a railroad worker involved in an accident that damaged the front part of his brain

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lesioning

the removal or destruction of part of the brain

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frontal lobotomy

type of lesioining that was used to treat mentally ill patiens