Biological Bases of Behavior Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > Biological Bases of Behavior > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biological Bases of Behavior Deck (66):
1

neuroanatomy

the study of the parts and function of neurons

2

neurons

individual nerve cells that make up our entire nervous system

3

dendrites

rootlike parts of the nerve cell that stretch out from the cell body; grow to make synaptic connections with other neurons

4

cell body (soma)

contains the nucleus and other parts of the cell needed to sustain its life

5

axon

wirelike structure ending in the terminal buttons that extends from the cell body

6

myelin sheath

a fatty covering around the axon that speeds neural impulses

7

terminal buttons

also called: end buttons, terminal branches of axon, synaptic knobs

8

neurotransmitters

chemicals contained in terminal buttons that enable neurons to communicate

9

synapse

the space beween the terminal buttons of one neuron and the dendrites of the next neurons

10

action potential

the local voltage change across the cell wall as a nerve impulse is transmitted

11

function of acetylcholine

motor movement

12

lack of acetylcholine

Alzheimer's disease

13

function of dopamine

motor movement and alertness

14

lack of dopamine

Parkinson's disease

15

overabundance of dopamine

schizophrenia

16

function of endorphins

pain control; involved in addictions

17

function of serotonin

mood control

18

lack of serotonin

associated with clinical depression

19

afferent neurons

neurons that take information from the senses to the brain

20

interneurons

in the brain or spinal cord, neurons that take messages and send them elsewhere in the brain or spinal cord

21

efferent neurons

neurons that take information from the brain to the rest of the body

22

Central Nervous System

consists of the brain and spinal cord; nerves encased in bone

23

Peripheral Nervous System

consists of nerves not encased in bone

24

Somatic Nervous System

controls voluntary muscle movements

25

Autonomic Nervous System

controls the automatic functions of our body

26

Sympathetic Nervous System

part of the Autonomic Nervous System

27

Parasympathetic Nervous System

part of the Autonomic Nervous System

28

Phineas Gage

a railroad worker involved in an accident that damaged the front part of his brain

29

lesioning

the removal or destruction of part of the brain

30

frontal lobotomy

type of lesioining that was used to treat mentally ill patiens

31

electroencephalogram (EEG)

detects brain waves, used in sleep research

32

Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT)

a sophisticated 3D X ray of the brain

33

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

a sophisticated 3D magnetic field image of the brain

34

Portion Emission Tomography (PET)

measures how much of a certain chemical parts of the brain is using

35

Functional MRI

combination of MRI and PET

36

hindbrain

structures in the top part of the spinal cord, controls basic biological functions that keep us alive

37

medulla

part of hindbrain

38

pons

part of hindbrain

39

cerebellum

part of hindbrain

40

midbrain

coordinates simple movements with sensory information

41

reticular formation

a netlike collection of cells throughout the hindbrain that controls general body arousal and he ability to focus our attention

42

forebrain

controls thought and reason

43

thalamus

part of forebrain

44

hypothalamus

part of forebrain

45

amygdala and hippocampus

hippocampus- arms surrounding the thalamus

46

limbic system

made up of thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala and hippocampus

47

fissures

wrinkles in the cerebral cortex

48

contralateral control

each hemisphere of the brain controls the opposite side of the body

49

brain lateralization/hemispheric specialization

specialization of function in each hemisphere

50

corpus callosum

the nerve bundle that connects the two hempisheres; cut in split-brain patients

51

split-brain patients

patients whose corpus callosums have been cut

52

association area

any area of the cerebral cortex that is not associated with receiving sensory information or controlling muscle movements

53

frontal lobes

part of the cerebral cortex

54

Broca's area

in the frontal lobe

55

motor cortex

in the frontal lobe

56

parietal lobes

contains sensory cortex (somato-sensory cortex)

57

sensory cortex (somato-sensory cortex)

receives incoming touch sensations from the rest of the body

58

occipital lobes

at the very back of the brain

59

temporal lobes

unlike occipital lobes, sound from either ear is processed in both temporal lobes

60

Wernicke's area

located in temporal lobe

61

brain plasticity

the ability of other parts of the brain to take over functions of damaged regions. Declines as hemispheres of the cerebral cortex lateralize.

62

adrenal glands

produce adrenaline, which causes rest of body to go into fight or flight mode

63

Thomas Bouchard

conducted study on identical twins that found a correlation of 0.69 on IQ, criticized because their similar appearances may have led to their being treated similarly

64

Turner's syndrome

only one X chromosome in the 23rd pair

65

Klinefelter's syndrome

extra X chromosome

66

Down's syndrome

extra chromosome on the 21st pair