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AP Psychology > Methods > Flashcards

Flashcards in Methods Deck (66):
1

applied research

research with clear, practical applications

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basic research

research that explores questions that are of interest of psychologists that are not intended to have immediate, real-world applications

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valid

measures what it's supposed to measure; accurate

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reliable

can be replicated, consistent

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hypothesis

a relationship between two variables

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variables

things that vary among the participants in the research

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dependent variable

depends on the independent variable

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theory

an explanation of some phenomenon, allows researchers to generate testable hypotheses

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operationalize

to explain how you will measure a variable

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subjects

the participants in research

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sampling

the process by which subjects are selected

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sample

group of subjects; should be representative of a larger population

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population

anyone or anything that could possibly be selected to be in the sample

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random selection

randomly selecting the sample group, increases the likelihood that the sample represents the population

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stratified sampling

randomly sampling each strata (category of people, for example race or gender) of the population, so that the final sample reflects the population more accurately

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laboratory experiment

conducted in a lab, a highly controlled environment

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field experiment

conducted in the world, more realistic than laboratory experiment

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experiment

only experiments can show cause and effect relationships through the manipulation of the independent variable and subsequent observation of the dependent variable while controlling for confounding variables

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confounding variable

any difference between the experimental and control conditions, besides the changes of the independent variable

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assignment

the process by which subjects are put into a group, experimental or control

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random assignment

each subject has an equal chance of being placed in either the experimental or the control group

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group matching

half of each condition (for example, male or female) is assigned to each group (experimental or control)

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situation-relevant confounding variables

differences between the experimental and control situations that may affect the experiment

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experimenter bias

the unconscious tendency for researchers to treat members of the experimental and control groups differently to increase the chance of confirming their hypotheses

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double-blind procedure

neither the subjects nor the researcher are able to affect the outcome of the research

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single-blind procedure

only the subjects do not know which group they're in

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demand characteristics

cues about the purpose of the study

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response/subject bias

when subjects behave in ways they think the observer wants them to behave

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Hawthorne effect

selecting a group of people on whom to experiment will affect the performance of hat group, regardless of what is done to the individuals

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placebo effect

the purely psychological effects of thinking you took a drug when you really didn't

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counterbalancing

using subjects as their own control group by having half of them be experimental first and half of them be control first

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order effect

the order of the experimental/control group activities may affect the results

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correlation

a relationship between two variables without ascribing cause

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ex post facto study

research in which subjects are chosen based on a pre-existing condition; all other variables are controlled

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survey method

kind of correlational research in which surveys are filled out; difficult to control for confounding variables

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naturalistic observation

unobtrusive observation on subjects in their natural habitats, control is sacrificed

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case study

a full, detailed picture of one subject or a small group of subjects; not reflective of population, as a result findings cannot be generalized

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descriptive statistics

describe a set of data

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frequency distribution

a distribution of observed frequencies of occurrence of the values of a variable

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frequency polygon

line graph

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histogram

bar graph

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measures of central tendency

attempt to mark the center of a distribution

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mean

the average of all the scores in a distribution

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median

the middle score of a distribution when written in ascending or descending order

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mode

the score that appears most frequently

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positively skewed

when a distribution has a high outlier, there are more low scores than high scores due to the outlier

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negatively skewed

when a distribution has a low outlier, there are more high scores than low scores due to the outlier

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measures of variability

attempt to depict the diversity of the distribution

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variance

the average of the squared differences of each number from the mean

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standard deviation

the square root of the variance

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range

the distance between the highest and lowest score in a distribution

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z score

the distance of a score from the mean in units of standard deviation

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normal curve

theoretical bell-shaped curve for which the area under the curve lying between any two z scores has been predetermined

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percentile

the distance of a score from 0

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correlation coefficient

range from -1 and +1

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scatter plot

a series of points plotted on a graph

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line of best fit

the line drawn through the scatter plot that minimizes the distance of all the points from the line

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inferential statistics

determine whether or not findings can be applied to the larger population from which the sample was selected; making sure the results are not due to sampling error and chance

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sampling error

the extent to which a sample differs from the population

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p value

the percent chance that the findings were due to chance

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institutional review board

reviews research proposal for ethical violations and/or procedural errors

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informed consent

participants must know that they are involved in research and give their consent

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coercion

participation must be voluntary

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anonymity/confidentiality

both protect privacy

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risk

participants cannot be placed in significant mental or physical risk

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debriefing procedures

participants must be told the purpose of the study and provided with ways to contact the researchers about study results