Methods Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > Methods > Flashcards

Flashcards in Methods Deck (66)
Loading flashcards...
1

applied research

research with clear, practical applications

2

basic research

research that explores questions that are of interest of psychologists that are not intended to have immediate, real-world applications

3

valid

measures what it's supposed to measure; accurate

4

reliable

can be replicated, consistent

5

hypothesis

a relationship between two variables

6

variables

things that vary among the participants in the research

7

dependent variable

depends on the independent variable

8

theory

an explanation of some phenomenon, allows researchers to generate testable hypotheses

9

operationalize

to explain how you will measure a variable

10

subjects

the participants in research

11

sampling

the process by which subjects are selected

12

sample

group of subjects; should be representative of a larger population

13

population

anyone or anything that could possibly be selected to be in the sample

14

random selection

randomly selecting the sample group, increases the likelihood that the sample represents the population

15

stratified sampling

randomly sampling each strata (category of people, for example race or gender) of the population, so that the final sample reflects the population more accurately

16

laboratory experiment

conducted in a lab, a highly controlled environment

17

field experiment

conducted in the world, more realistic than laboratory experiment

18

experiment

only experiments can show cause and effect relationships through the manipulation of the independent variable and subsequent observation of the dependent variable while controlling for confounding variables

19

confounding variable

any difference between the experimental and control conditions, besides the changes of the independent variable

20

assignment

the process by which subjects are put into a group, experimental or control

21

random assignment

each subject has an equal chance of being placed in either the experimental or the control group

22

group matching

half of each condition (for example, male or female) is assigned to each group (experimental or control)

23

situation-relevant confounding variables

differences between the experimental and control situations that may affect the experiment

24

experimenter bias

the unconscious tendency for researchers to treat members of the experimental and control groups differently to increase the chance of confirming their hypotheses

25

double-blind procedure

neither the subjects nor the researcher are able to affect the outcome of the research

26

single-blind procedure

only the subjects do not know which group they're in

27

demand characteristics

cues about the purpose of the study

28

response/subject bias

when subjects behave in ways they think the observer wants them to behave

29

Hawthorne effect

selecting a group of people on whom to experiment will affect the performance of hat group, regardless of what is done to the individuals

30

placebo effect

the purely psychological effects of thinking you took a drug when you really didn't