Flashcards in Methods Deck (66):

1

## applied research

### research with clear, practical applications

2

## basic research

### research that explores questions that are of interest of psychologists that are not intended to have immediate, real-world applications

3

## valid

### measures what it's supposed to measure; accurate

4

## reliable

### can be replicated, consistent

5

## hypothesis

### a relationship between two variables

6

## variables

### things that vary among the participants in the research

7

## dependent variable

### depends on the independent variable

8

## theory

### an explanation of some phenomenon, allows researchers to generate testable hypotheses

9

## operationalize

### to explain how you will measure a variable

10

## subjects

### the participants in research

11

## sampling

### the process by which subjects are selected

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## sample

### group of subjects; should be representative of a larger population

13

## population

### anyone or anything that could possibly be selected to be in the sample

14

## random selection

### randomly selecting the sample group, increases the likelihood that the sample represents the population

15

## stratified sampling

### randomly sampling each strata (category of people, for example race or gender) of the population, so that the final sample reflects the population more accurately

16

## laboratory experiment

### conducted in a lab, a highly controlled environment

17

## field experiment

### conducted in the world, more realistic than laboratory experiment

18

## experiment

### only experiments can show cause and effect relationships through the manipulation of the independent variable and subsequent observation of the dependent variable while controlling for confounding variables

19

## confounding variable

### any difference between the experimental and control conditions, besides the changes of the independent variable

20

## assignment

### the process by which subjects are put into a group, experimental or control

21

## random assignment

### each subject has an equal chance of being placed in either the experimental or the control group

22

## group matching

### half of each condition (for example, male or female) is assigned to each group (experimental or control)

23

## situation-relevant confounding variables

### differences between the experimental and control situations that may affect the experiment

24

## experimenter bias

### the unconscious tendency for researchers to treat members of the experimental and control groups differently to increase the chance of confirming their hypotheses

25

## double-blind procedure

### neither the subjects nor the researcher are able to affect the outcome of the research

26

## single-blind procedure

### only the subjects do not know which group they're in

27

## demand characteristics

### cues about the purpose of the study

28

## response/subject bias

### when subjects behave in ways they think the observer wants them to behave

29

## Hawthorne effect

### selecting a group of people on whom to experiment will affect the performance of hat group, regardless of what is done to the individuals

30

## placebo effect

### the purely psychological effects of thinking you took a drug when you really didn't

31

## counterbalancing

### using subjects as their own control group by having half of them be experimental first and half of them be control first

32

## order effect

### the order of the experimental/control group activities may affect the results

33

## correlation

### a relationship between two variables without ascribing cause

34

## ex post facto study

### research in which subjects are chosen based on a pre-existing condition; all other variables are controlled

35

## survey method

### kind of correlational research in which surveys are filled out; difficult to control for confounding variables

36

## naturalistic observation

### unobtrusive observation on subjects in their natural habitats, control is sacrificed

37

## case study

### a full, detailed picture of one subject or a small group of subjects; not reflective of population, as a result findings cannot be generalized

38

## descriptive statistics

### describe a set of data

39

## frequency distribution

### a distribution of observed frequencies of occurrence of the values of a variable

40

## frequency polygon

### line graph

41

## histogram

### bar graph

42

## measures of central tendency

### attempt to mark the center of a distribution

43

## mean

### the average of all the scores in a distribution

44

## median

### the middle score of a distribution when written in ascending or descending order

45

## mode

### the score that appears most frequently

46

## positively skewed

### when a distribution has a high outlier, there are more low scores than high scores due to the outlier

47

## negatively skewed

### when a distribution has a low outlier, there are more high scores than low scores due to the outlier

48

## measures of variability

### attempt to depict the diversity of the distribution

49

## variance

### the average of the squared differences of each number from the mean

50

## standard deviation

### the square root of the variance

51

## range

### the distance between the highest and lowest score in a distribution

52

## z score

### the distance of a score from the mean in units of standard deviation

53

## normal curve

### theoretical bell-shaped curve for which the area under the curve lying between any two z scores has been predetermined

54

## percentile

### the distance of a score from 0

55

## correlation coefficient

### range from -1 and +1

56

## scatter plot

### a series of points plotted on a graph

57

## line of best fit

### the line drawn through the scatter plot that minimizes the distance of all the points from the line

58

## inferential statistics

### determine whether or not findings can be applied to the larger population from which the sample was selected; making sure the results are not due to sampling error and chance

59

## sampling error

### the extent to which a sample differs from the population

60

## p value

### the percent chance that the findings were due to chance

61

## institutional review board

### reviews research proposal for ethical violations and/or procedural errors

62

## informed consent

### participants must know that they are involved in research and give their consent

63

## coercion

### participation must be voluntary

64

## anonymity/confidentiality

### both protect privacy

65

## risk

### participants cannot be placed in significant mental or physical risk

66