Social Psychology Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > Social Psychology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Social Psychology Deck (92)
Loading flashcards...
1

social cognition

how people think about themselves and the social world; more specifically, how people select, interpret, remember, and use social information to make judgments and decisions

2

attitude

set of beliefs and feelings

3

mere exposure effect

the more one is exposed to something, the more one will come to like it

4

LaPiere study

discovered that although people had bad attitudes towards Asians, they still treated them well

5

cognitive dissonance theory

the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes

6

Festinger and Carlsmith experiment

Subjects asked to perform a boring task and then lie to the next subject that it was fun. One group was paid $1 and the other group was paid $20. The group paid $1 said that the boring task was fun, because they didn't have much of an external motivation to lie.

7

compliance strategies

strategies to get others to comply with your wishes

8

foot-in-the-door

if you can get people to agree to a small request, they will become more likely to agree to a follow-up request that is larger

9

door-in-the-face

after people refuse a large reques, hey will look more favorably upon a follow-up request that seems, in comparison, much more reasonable

10

norms of reciprocity

if someone does something nice for you, you feel obligated to do something nice for them

11

attribution theory

how people determine the cause ofwhat they observe

12

dispositional/person attribution

personality traits; Charley did well on a math test because he is good at math

13

situation attribution

situational influence; Charley did well on a math test because the test was easy

14

Harold Kelley

put forth a theory that explains the kind of attributions people make based on three kinds of information: consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus

15

consistency

how similarly the individual acts in the same situation over time

16

distinctiveness

how similar this situation is to other situations in which we have watched the individual

17

consensus

how other people acted in the same situation

18

self-fulfilling prophecy

an expectation that causes others to act in ways that make that expectation come true

19

Rosenthal and Jacobsen's experiment

Pygmalion in the Classroom

20

fundamental attribution error

people in individualist cultures systematically seem to overestimate the role of dispositional factors in influencing another person's actions

21

false-consensus effect

the tendency of people to overestimate the number of people who agree with them

22

self-serving bias

the endency to take more credit for good outcomes than for bad ones

23

just-world belief

misfortunes befall people who deserve them

24

stereotypes

ideas about what members of different groups are like, and these expectations may influence the way we interact with members of these groups

25

prejudice

an undeserved, usually negative, attitude toward a group of people

26

discrimination

unfair treatment of a person or group on the basis of prejudice

27

in-group

people of their own group, seen as more diverse than people of out-groups

28

out-group

people of other groups, seen as more homogeneous than people of in-groups

29

in-group bias

people have a preference for members of their own group

30

contact theory

contact between hostile groups will reduce animosity, but only if the groups are made to work toward a goal that benefits all and necessitates the participation of all (superordinate goal)