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AP Psychology > Social Psychology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Social Psychology Deck (92):
1

social cognition

how people think about themselves and the social world; more specifically, how people select, interpret, remember, and use social information to make judgments and decisions

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attitude

set of beliefs and feelings

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mere exposure effect

the more one is exposed to something, the more one will come to like it

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LaPiere study

discovered that although people had bad attitudes towards Asians, they still treated them well

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cognitive dissonance theory

the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes

6

Festinger and Carlsmith experiment

Subjects asked to perform a boring task and then lie to the next subject that it was fun. One group was paid $1 and the other group was paid $20. The group paid $1 said that the boring task was fun, because they didn't have much of an external motivation to lie.

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compliance strategies

strategies to get others to comply with your wishes

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foot-in-the-door

if you can get people to agree to a small request, they will become more likely to agree to a follow-up request that is larger

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door-in-the-face

after people refuse a large reques, hey will look more favorably upon a follow-up request that seems, in comparison, much more reasonable

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norms of reciprocity

if someone does something nice for you, you feel obligated to do something nice for them

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attribution theory

how people determine the cause ofwhat they observe

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dispositional/person attribution

personality traits; Charley did well on a math test because he is good at math

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situation attribution

situational influence; Charley did well on a math test because the test was easy

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Harold Kelley

put forth a theory that explains the kind of attributions people make based on three kinds of information: consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus

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consistency

how similarly the individual acts in the same situation over time

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distinctiveness

how similar this situation is to other situations in which we have watched the individual

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consensus

how other people acted in the same situation

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self-fulfilling prophecy

an expectation that causes others to act in ways that make that expectation come true

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Rosenthal and Jacobsen's experiment

Pygmalion in the Classroom

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fundamental attribution error

people in individualist cultures systematically seem to overestimate the role of dispositional factors in influencing another person's actions

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false-consensus effect

the tendency of people to overestimate the number of people who agree with them

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self-serving bias

the endency to take more credit for good outcomes than for bad ones

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just-world belief

misfortunes befall people who deserve them

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stereotypes

ideas about what members of different groups are like, and these expectations may influence the way we interact with members of these groups

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prejudice

an undeserved, usually negative, attitude toward a group of people

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discrimination

unfair treatment of a person or group on the basis of prejudice

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in-group

people of their own group, seen as more diverse than people of out-groups

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out-group

people of other groups, seen as more homogeneous than people of in-groups

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in-group bias

people have a preference for members of their own group

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contact theory

contact between hostile groups will reduce animosity, but only if the groups are made to work toward a goal that benefits all and necessitates the participation of all (superordinate goal)

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superordinate goal

a goal that benefits all and necessitates the participation of all

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SSherif's camp study

Robbers Cave study

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instrumental aggression

aggression as a means to some goal other than causing pain

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hostile aggression

aggression stemming from feelings of anger and aimed at inflicting pain

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frustration-aggression hypothesis

the feeling of frestration makes aggression more likely

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Bandura, Ross, and Ross's experiment

Bobo doll experiment

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prosocial behavior

behavior in which you help others

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bystander intervention

the act of helping strangers in an emergency situation

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diffusion of responsibility

reduction in sense of responsibility often felt by individuals in a group; may be responsible for the bystander effect

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pluralistic ignorance

no one believes, but everyone thinks that everyone believes

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similarity, proximity and reciprocal liking

the three factors

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implosive therapy

behavioral therapy

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aversive conditioning

behavioral therapy

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instrumental conditioning

behavioral therapy

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token economy

behavioral therapy

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modeling

behavioral therapy

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attributional style

a person's characteristic way of explaining outcomes of events in his or her life

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Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT or RET)

Cognitive behavioral therapy developed by Albert Ellis. Therapists look to expose and confront the dysfunctional thoughts of their clients.

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cognitive therapy

developed by Aaron Beck, usually used in treatment of depression, involves trying to get clients to engage in pursuits that will bring them success

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cognitive triad

theorized by Aaron Beck

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family therapy

a type of group therapy used to treat families

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self-help groups

a type of group therapy that does not involve a therapist

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psychopharmacology/chemotherapy

the use of drugs to treat psychological problems

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antipsychotic drugs (neuroleptics)

block the receptor sites for dopamine, used to treat schizophrenia, may result in tardive dyskinesia

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tardive dyskinesia

Parkinsonian-like, chronic muscle tremors

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drugs used to treat unipolar depression

tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, and serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor drugs (Prozac) which all tend to increase the activity of serotonin

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lithium

a metal used to trea the manic phase of bipolar disorder

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drugs used to treat anxiety disorders

barbiturates (Miltown) and benzodiazepines (Xanax and Valium)

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electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

when an electric current is passed through one (unilateral ECT) or both (bilateral ECT) hemispheres of the brain

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psychosurgery

the purposeful destruction of part of the brain to alter a person's behavior

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prefrontal lobotomy

a type of psychosurgery

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psychiatrists

medical doctors and are the only therapists permitted to prescribe medication

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clinical psychologists

psychologists with a Ph. D. and specialize in research, assessment, and therapy

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counseling psychologists

psychologists with a graduate degree in psychology and treat less severe problems than clinical psychologists do

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psychoanalysts

people trained specifically in Freudian methods who may or may not hold medical degrees

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paraphilia

the sexual attraction to an object, person, or activity not usually seen as sexual

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fetishism

paraphilia

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pedophilia

paraphilia

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zoophilia

paraphilia

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voyeur

paraphilia

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masochist

paraphilia

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sadist

paraphilia

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antisocial personality disorder

little regard for other people's feelings

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dependent personality disorder

rely too much on the attention and help of others

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paranoid personality disorder

feel persecuted

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narcissistic personality disorder

seeing oneself as the center of the universe

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histronic personality disorder

overly dramatic behavior

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obsessive-compulsive personality disorder

overly concerned with certain thoughts and performing certain behaviors, but not to the point of obsessive compulsive disorder

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anorexia nervosa

eating disorder

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bulimia

eating disorder

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substance use disorder

regular and negative use of alcohol or other drugs that alter behavior

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substance dependence

addiction

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autism

developmental disorder

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attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

developmental disorder

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Rosenhan Study

study in which healthy individuals were admitted into mental hospitals after saying they were hearing voices. Once in, they acted normally and still were not labeled as impostors.

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preconventional

reasoning limited to how things affect themselves

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conventional

choice based on how others will view them

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postconventional

examines rights and values involved in choice

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Criticisms of Lawrence Kohlberg

Carol Gilligan noted that his research was based on boys, her research showed that boys and girls had different moral attitudes, but was later disproved

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biopsychological (neuropsychological) theory of gender development

studies demonstrate that biological differences do exist between the sexes

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psychodynamic theory of gender development

gender development is a competition for your opposite sex parent, when you realize you can't win, you imitate your same-sex parent

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social-cognitive theory of gender development

effects of society and thoughs about gender on role development