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AP Psychology > Personality > Flashcards

Flashcards in Personality Deck (75):
1

personality

the unique attitudes, behaviors, and emotions that characterize a person

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stage theories

theories in which development is thought to be discontinuous

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penis envy

part of Freud's psychosexual stage theory

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castration anxiety

part of Freud's psychosexual stage theory

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idenitification

part of Freud's psychosexual stage theory

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id

contains instincts and psychic energy, called Eros and Thanatos

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pleasure principle

followed by id

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ego

follows the reality principle

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reality principle

followed by ego

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superego

exists in both the unconscious mind and the conscious mind

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repression

pushing thoughts out of conscious awareness

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denial

not accepting the ego-threatening truth

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displacement

redirecting one's feelings towards another person or object. When people displace negative emotions like anger, they often displace them onto people whoa re less threatening than the source of the emotion

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projection

believing that the feelings one has toward someone else are actually held by the other person and directed at oneself

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reaction formation

expressing the opposite of how one truly feels

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regression

returning to an earlier, comforting form of behavior

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rationalization

coming up with a beneficial result of an undesirable occurrence

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intellectualization

undertaking an academic, unemotional study of a topic

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sublimation

channeling one's frustration toward a different goal

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criticisms of Freud

#NAME?

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psychodynamic theorists

Carl Jung and Alfred Adler

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Jung's unconscious

consists of collective unconscious and personal unconscious

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collective unconscious

unconscious passed down through the species; explains the similarities across cultures

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archetypes

universal concepts we all share as part of the human species

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personal unconscious

resembles Freud's view of the unconscious; contains the painful or threatening memories and thoughts the person does not wish to confront; called complexes

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Freudian ego psychologist

a Freudian psychologist who downplays the importance of the unconscious and focuses on the conscious role of the ego

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Alfred Adler

a Freudian psychologist who downplays the importance of the unconscious and focuses on the conscious role of the ego who also believed people were motivated by inferiority and superiority

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inferiority

the fear of failure

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superiority

the desire to achieve

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nomothetic

the belief taht the same basic set of traits can be used to describe all people's personalities

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Hans Eyesenck

introversion-extroversion scale and stable-unstable scale

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Raymond Cattel

16 PF (personalty factor)

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big five personality traits

extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness to experience, and emotional stability (or neuroticism)

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factor analysis

a statistical technique used to reduce the vast number of different terms we use to describe people to 16 or five basic traits

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idiographic theorists

oppose nomothetic theorists

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Gordon Allport

theorized that in order to have a full understanding of someone's personality, you needed to look at their personal traits

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cardinal dispositions

one trait that plays a pivotal role in virtually everything a small number of people do

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central dispositions

more apparent than secondary dispositions, but less so than cardinal dispositions

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secondary dispositions

less apparent than central dispositions

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criticism of trait theories

underestimate importance of the situation

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heritability

the measure of the percentage of a trait that is inherited

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temperaments

heritable

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somatotype theory

William Sheldon

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endomorphs (fat)

according to William Sheldon

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mesomorphs (muscular)

according to William Sheldon

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ectomorphs (thin)

according to William Sheldon

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Albert Bandura

believed that personality is created by an interaction between the person (traits), the environment, and the person's behavior

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triadic reciprocality/reciprocal determinism

the person (traits), the environment, and the person's behavior each influence both of the other two in a constant looplike fashion

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self-efficacy

Refers to one's belief about one's ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes. Those with high levels for a particular task are more likely to succeed than those with low levels

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George Kelley

proposed personal-construct theory of personality

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personal-construct theory of personality

George Kelley

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locus of control

Julian Rotter

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determinism

the belief that what happens is dictated by what has happened in the past

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free will

an individual's ability to choose his or her own destiny

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humanistic psychology

also called the third force

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self-concept

a person's global feeling about himself and herself

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self-esteem

A measure of how much you value and respect yourself

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self-actualize

to reach one's full potential

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self-theory

created by Carl Rogers

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unconditional positive regard

a kind of blanket acceptance important in Carl Rogers' self-theory

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projective tests

used by psychoanalysts

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self-report inventories

questionnaires that ask people to provide information about themselves

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Barnum effect

the tendency for people to see themselves in vague, stock descriptions of personality

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metacognition

thinking about thinking

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criticisms of Jean Piaget's cognitive development theory

#NAME?

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information processing model

a continuous alternative of Piaget's stage theory

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Lawrence Kohlberg

#NAME?

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Heinz dilemma

stealing a drug he cannot afford in order to save his wife's life

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preconventional

reasoning limited to how things affect themselves

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conventional

choice based on how others will view them

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postconventional

examines rights and values involved in choice

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Criticisms of Lawrence Kohlberg

Carol Gilligan noted that his research was based on boys, her research showed that boys and girls had different moral attitudes, but was later disproved

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biopsychological (neuropsychological) theory of gender development

studies demonstrate that biological differences do exist between the sexes

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psychodynamic theory of gender development

gender development is a competition for your opposite sex parent, when you realize you can't win, you imitate your same-sex parent

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social-cognitive theory of gender development

effects of society and thoughs about gender on role development