Treatment of Psychological Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Treatment of Psychological Disorders Deck (87):
1

trephination

a operation that removes a circular section of bone from the skull

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Hippocrates

a Greek philosopher who maintained that psychological illnesses were influenced by biological factors and could therefore be treated

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Galen

a Roman philosopher who maintained that psychological illnesses were influenced by biological factors and could therefore be treated

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deinstitutionalization

1960s and 1970s governmental policy that focused on releasing hospitalized psychiatric patients into the community and closing mental hospitals in order to save money and benefit the former inpatients

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Did deinstitutionalization work?

No, because the former patients were unable to care for themselves, ending up homeless and delusional.

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preventative efforts

psychological problems can be treated proactively, or before they become severe, suffering and cost to client will go down.

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primary prevention

methods to avoid occurrence of disease

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secondary prevention

methods to avoid occurrence of disease in people at risk

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tertiary prevention

methods to diagnose and treat existent disease in early stages before it causes significant morbidity

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psychotherapy

therapeutic interaction or treatment contracted between a trained professional and a client, patient, family, couple, or group

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somatic treatments

the use of drugs to treat mental illness

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What kind of psychologists use "patient"?

psychologists with a biomedical orientation and psychoanalysts

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What kind of psychologists use "client"?

therapists other than psychologists with a biomedical orientation and psychoanalysts

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psychoanalysis

a set of techniques developed by Freud for exploring underlying motives and a method of treating various mental disorders

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symptom substitution

when, after a person is successfully treated for one psychological disorder, that person begins to experience a new psychological problem

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hypnosis

an altered state of consciousness in which psychoanalysts believe that people are less likely to repress troubling thoughts

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free associate

to say whatever comes to mind without thinking, supposed to bypass the ego's censoring and defenses and go straight into the unconscious where the problems are

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dream analysis

the patient reports the literal content (manifest content) to the psychoanalyst who interprets it to become what it really means (latent/hidden content)

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resistance

patient objections to the psychoanalyst's interpretation

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transference

when patients begin to have strong feelings (negative or positive) toward their therapists

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psychodynamic theorists

psychologists who are influenced by Freud's work but have significantly modified his original theory

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insight therapies

psychoanalytic/psychodynamic treatments and humanistic therapies

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self-actualization

to reach one's highest potential

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free will

the ability to choose their own destinies

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determinism

people have no influence over what happens to them and that their choices are predetermined by forces outside of their control

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Carl Rogers

humanist

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client-centered therapy/person-centered therapy

developed by Carl Rogers, this humanistic therapy includes unconditional positive regard and active listening

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unconditional positive regard

blanket acceptance and support of a person regardless of what the person says or does

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non-directive

humanistic therapists do not tell the clients what to do but seek to help the clients choose a course of action for themselves.

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active listening

empathetic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies

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Gestalt therapy

developed by Fritz Perls

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existential therapy

humanistic therapy that focuses on helping clients achieve a subjectively meaningful perception of their lives

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counterconditioning

behavioral therapy

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systematic desensitization

behavioral therapy

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anxiety hierarchy

a rank-ordered list of what the client fears, from least frightening to most frightening

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in vivo desensitization

behavioral therapy

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implosive therapy

behavioral therapy

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aversive conditioning

behavioral therapy

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instrumental conditioning

behavioral therapy

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token economy

behavioral therapy

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modeling

behavioral therapy

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attributional style

a person's characteristic way of explaining outcomes of events in his or her life

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Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT or RET)

Cognitive behavioral therapy developed by Albert Ellis. Therapists look to expose and confront the dysfunctional thoughts of their clients.

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cognitive therapy

developed by Aaron Beck, usually used in treatment of depression, involves trying to get clients to engage in pursuits that will bring them success

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cognitive triad

theorized by Aaron Beck

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family therapy

a type of group therapy used to treat families

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self-help groups

a type of group therapy that does not involve a therapist

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psychopharmacology/chemotherapy

the use of drugs to treat psychological problems

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antipsychotic drugs (neuroleptics)

block the receptor sites for dopamine, used to treat schizophrenia, may result in tardive dyskinesia

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tardive dyskinesia

Parkinsonian-like, chronic muscle tremors

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drugs used to treat unipolar depression

tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, and serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor drugs (Prozac) which all tend to increase the activity of serotonin

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lithium

a metal used to trea the manic phase of bipolar disorder

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drugs used to treat anxiety disorders

barbiturates (Miltown) and benzodiazepines (Xanax and Valium)

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electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

when an electric current is passed through one (unilateral ECT) or both (bilateral ECT) hemispheres of the brain

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psychosurgery

the purposeful destruction of part of the brain to alter a person's behavior

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prefrontal lobotomy

a type of psychosurgery

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psychiatrists

medical doctors and are the only therapists permitted to prescribe medication

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clinical psychologists

psychologists with a Ph. D. and specialize in research, assessment, and therapy

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counseling psychologists

psychologists with a graduate degree in psychology and treat less severe problems than clinical psychologists do

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psychoanalysts

people trained specifically in Freudian methods who may or may not hold medical degrees

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paraphilia

the sexual attraction to an object, person, or activity not usually seen as sexual

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fetishism

paraphilia

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pedophilia

paraphilia

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zoophilia

paraphilia

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voyeur

paraphilia

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masochist

paraphilia

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sadist

paraphilia

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antisocial personality disorder

little regard for other people's feelings

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dependent personality disorder

rely too much on the attention and help of others

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paranoid personality disorder

feel persecuted

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narcissistic personality disorder

seeing oneself as the center of the universe

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histronic personality disorder

overly dramatic behavior

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obsessive-compulsive personality disorder

overly concerned with certain thoughts and performing certain behaviors, but not to the point of obsessive compulsive disorder

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anorexia nervosa

eating disorder

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bulimia

eating disorder

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substance use disorder

regular and negative use of alcohol or other drugs that alter behavior

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substance dependence

addiction

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autism

developmental disorder

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attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

developmental disorder

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Rosenhan Study

study in which healthy individuals were admitted into mental hospitals after saying they were hearing voices. Once in, they acted normally and still were not labeled as impostors.

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preconventional

reasoning limited to how things affect themselves

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conventional

choice based on how others will view them

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postconventional

examines rights and values involved in choice

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Criticisms of Lawrence Kohlberg

Carol Gilligan noted that his research was based on boys, her research showed that boys and girls had different moral attitudes, but was later disproved

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biopsychological (neuropsychological) theory of gender development

studies demonstrate that biological differences do exist between the sexes

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psychodynamic theory of gender development

gender development is a competition for your opposite sex parent, when you realize you can't win, you imitate your same-sex parent

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social-cognitive theory of gender development

effects of society and thoughs about gender on role development