Sensation and Perception Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > Sensation and Perception > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sensation and Perception Deck (73):
1

transduction

the process in which signals are transformed into neural impulses

2

cocktail-party phenomenon

when your attention involuntarily switches (someone calls your name)

3

cornea

a protective covering of the eye

4

pupil

dilates and becomes smaller to allow the right amount of light into your eye

5

lens

curved and flexible in order to focus the light

6

retina

a screen on the back of your eye

7

cones

cells activated by color

8

rods

cells that respond to black and white

9

fovea

located at the center of your retina and contains the highest concentration of cones

10

ganglion cells

their axons make up the optic nerve that sends visual impulses to the lateral geniculate nucleus in the thalamus

11

lateral geniculate nucleus

a place in the thalamus that receives impulses from the optic nerve

12

blind spot

where the optic nerve leaves the retina, calls such because has no rods or cones

13

optic chasm

the place nerves from both eyes join and cross over within the brain

14

feature detectors

discovered by Hubel and Weisel, nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement

15

trichromatic theory

there are three types of cones in the retina (blue, red and green) that activate in different combinations to produce all the colors of the visible spectrum

16

afterimage

an image (usually a negative image) that persists after stimulation has ceased

17

opponent-process theory

the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision. For example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green

18

amplitude

the height of a sound wave, measured in decibels

19

frequency

the length of the waves and determines pitch, measured in megahertz

20

order of sound in your ear

ear canal -> eardrum/tympanic membrane -> hammer (malleus bone) -> anvil (incus bone) -> stirrup (stapes bone) -> oval window -> cochlea (snail's shell filled with fluid) -> hair at bottom of cochlea -> organ of Corti (neurons activated by the hair) -> auditory nerve

21

place theory

hair cells in the cochlea respond to different frequencies of sound based on where they are located in the cochlea

22

frequency theory

place theory works for high frequency sounds, but not low frequency

23

conduction deafness

something goes wrong with the system of conducting sound to the cochlea

24

nerve (sensorineural) deafness

when the hair cells in the cochlea are damaged, usually by loud noise

25

gate-control theory

when a higher priority pain message coincides with a lower priority pain message, only the higher one will be felt

26

papillae

the bumps on your tongue

27

olfactory bulb

one of two enlargements at the terminus of the olfactory nerve at the base of the brain just above the nasal cavities

28

vestibular sense

how our body is oriented in space

29

kinesthetic sense

the position and orientation of specific body parts

30

absolute threshold

the smallest amount of stimulus we can detect

31

subliminal

stimuli below absolute threshold

32

difference threshold (just-noticeable difference)

the smallest amount of change needed in a stimulus before we can detect a change

33

Weber's law

the change needed to make a noticeable difference to something is proportional to the original intensity of the stimulus

34

signal detection theory

a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus ("signal") amid background stimulation ("noise"). Assumes there is no single absolute threshold and detection depends partly on a person's experience, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue.

35

response criteria (receiver operating characteristics)

how motivated people are to detect certain stimuli and expectations for what they want to perceive

36

false positive

when we think we perceive a stimulus that is not there

37

a false negative

not perceiving a stimulus that is present

38

top-down processing

information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions

39

schemata

mental representations of how we expect the world to be

40

perceptual set

a predisposition to perceiving something in a certain way

41

backmasking

supposed hidden messages musicians recorded backward in their music

42

bottom-up processing (feature analysis)

we use only the features of the object itself to perceive it

43

figure-ground relationship

A Gestalt principle of perceptual organization that states that we automatically separate the elements of a perception into the feature that clearly stands out and its less distinct background.

44

constancy

the ability to maintain a constant perception of an object despite changes in direct appearance

45

visual cliff experiment

created by E.J. Gibson, used to determine when infants can perceive depth

46

Muller-Lyer illusion

demonstrates that some perceptual rules are learned from culture

47

Weber's law for sight

constant for vision: 8%

48

Weber's law for hearing

constant for hearing: 5%

49

forebrain

controls thought and reason

50

thalamus

part of forebrain

51

hypothalamus

part of forebrain

52

amygdala and hippocampus

hippocampus- arms surrounding the thalamus

53

limbic system

made up of thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala and hippocampus

54

fissures

wrinkles in the cerebral cortex

55

contralateral control

each hemisphere of the brain controls the opposite side of the body

56

brain lateralization/hemispheric specialization

specialization of function in each hemisphere

57

corpus callosum

the nerve bundle that connects the two hempisheres; cut in split-brain patients

58

split-brain patients

patients whose corpus callosums have been cut

59

association area

any area of the cerebral cortex that is not associated with receiving sensory information or controlling muscle movements

60

frontal lobes

part of the cerebral cortex

61

Broca's area

in the frontal lobe

62

motor cortex

in the frontal lobe

63

parietal lobes

contains sensory cortex (somato-sensory cortex)

64

sensory cortex (somato-sensory cortex)

receives incoming touch sensations from the rest of the body

65

occipital lobes

at the very back of the brain

66

temporal lobes

unlike occipital lobes, sound from either ear is processed in both temporal lobes

67

Wernicke's area

located in temporal lobe

68

brain plasticity

the ability of other parts of the brain to take over functions of damaged regions. Declines as hemispheres of the cerebral cortex lateralize.

69

adrenal glands

produce adrenaline, which causes rest of body to go into fight or flight mode

70

Thomas Bouchard

conducted study on identical twins that found a correlation of 0.69 on IQ, criticized because their similar appearances may have led to their being treated similarly

71

Turner's syndrome

only one X chromosome in the 23rd pair

72

Klinefelter's syndrome

extra X chromosome

73

Down's syndrome

extra chromosome on the 21st pair