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Flashcards in Sensation and Perception Deck (73)
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1

transduction

the process in which signals are transformed into neural impulses

2

cocktail-party phenomenon

when your attention involuntarily switches (someone calls your name)

3

cornea

a protective covering of the eye

4

pupil

dilates and becomes smaller to allow the right amount of light into your eye

5

lens

curved and flexible in order to focus the light

6

retina

a screen on the back of your eye

7

cones

cells activated by color

8

rods

cells that respond to black and white

9

fovea

located at the center of your retina and contains the highest concentration of cones

10

ganglion cells

their axons make up the optic nerve that sends visual impulses to the lateral geniculate nucleus in the thalamus

11

lateral geniculate nucleus

a place in the thalamus that receives impulses from the optic nerve

12

blind spot

where the optic nerve leaves the retina, calls such because has no rods or cones

13

optic chasm

the place nerves from both eyes join and cross over within the brain

14

feature detectors

discovered by Hubel and Weisel, nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement

15

trichromatic theory

there are three types of cones in the retina (blue, red and green) that activate in different combinations to produce all the colors of the visible spectrum

16

afterimage

an image (usually a negative image) that persists after stimulation has ceased

17

opponent-process theory

the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision. For example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green

18

amplitude

the height of a sound wave, measured in decibels

19

frequency

the length of the waves and determines pitch, measured in megahertz

20

order of sound in your ear

ear canal -> eardrum/tympanic membrane -> hammer (malleus bone) -> anvil (incus bone) -> stirrup (stapes bone) -> oval window -> cochlea (snail's shell filled with fluid) -> hair at bottom of cochlea -> organ of Corti (neurons activated by the hair) -> auditory nerve

21

place theory

hair cells in the cochlea respond to different frequencies of sound based on where they are located in the cochlea

22

frequency theory

place theory works for high frequency sounds, but not low frequency

23

conduction deafness

something goes wrong with the system of conducting sound to the cochlea

24

nerve (sensorineural) deafness

when the hair cells in the cochlea are damaged, usually by loud noise

25

gate-control theory

when a higher priority pain message coincides with a lower priority pain message, only the higher one will be felt

26

papillae

the bumps on your tongue

27

olfactory bulb

one of two enlargements at the terminus of the olfactory nerve at the base of the brain just above the nasal cavities

28

vestibular sense

how our body is oriented in space

29

kinesthetic sense

the position and orientation of specific body parts

30

absolute threshold

the smallest amount of stimulus we can detect