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AP Psychology > States of Consciousness > Flashcards

Flashcards in States of Consciousness Deck (67):
1

dualism

the universe, including humans, is made up of thought and matter (matter- everything that has substance)

2

monism

everything is part of the same substance

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consciousness

level of awareness

4

mere-exposure effect

old stimuli are preferred over new stimuli, because on some level the old stimuli are remembered and known

5

priming

exposure to a stimulus influences a response to a later stimulus

6

blind sight

some blind people can respond to visual stimuli because on some level of consciousness is able to "see"

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conscious

the information about yourself and your environment you are currently aware of

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nonconscious

body processes controlled by your mind that we are not usually aware of

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preconscious

information abut yourself or your environment that you are not currently thinking about, but could be

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subconscious

information that we are not consciously aware of but we know must exist due to behavior like priming and mere-exposure

11

unconscious

psychoanalyst idea-- some unacceptable events and feelings are repressed from conscious mind to unconscious

12

circadian rhythm

a daily cycle of activity observed in many living organisms

13

sleep onset

the stage between wakefulness and sleep

14

alpha waves

relatively high-frequency, low amplitude waves produced while awake and in stages 1 and 2

15

sleep spindles

short bursts of rapid brain waves that start to appear in stage 2 sleep

16

delta sleep/slow-wave sleep

stages 3 and 4's other names due to the delta waves that exist during these stages

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rapid eye movement (REM) (paradoxical sleep)

period of intense brain activity, eyes dart back and forth, many muscles twitch repeatedly, dreams

18

REM rebound

individuals deprived of REM sleep will experience more and longer periods of REM sleep the next time they are allowed to sleep normally

19

insomnia

problems getting to sleep/staying asleep at night

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treatment of insomnia

treated with changes of behavior:

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narcolepsy

periods of intense sleepiness and falling asleep at unpredictable and inappropriate times

22

treatment of narcolepsy

treated with medication and changing sleep patterns (naps at certain times of the day)

23

sleep apnea

when a person stops breathing for short periods of time during the night

24

night terrors

feelings of terror or dread usually affecting children

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somnambulism

sleep walking usually occurring in children

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manifest content

literal content of dreams

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latent content

the unconscious meaning of the manifest content

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protected sleep

ego protects us from unconscious by representing everything in symbols

29

activation-synthesis theory

dreams are interpretations of physiological things and have no meaning

30

information-processing theory

more stress causes more dreams about your stress

31

posthypnotic amnesia

people forget events that occurred during hypnosis

32

posthypnotic suggestion

a suggestion that a hypnotized person have a certain way after hypnosis

33

role theory

hypnosis is not an alternate state of consciousness; hypnotized people are just filling out the "role" of a hypnotized person

34

hypnotic suggestibility

some people are more easily hypnotized than others

35

state theory

theory that hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness

36

dissociation theory

created by Ernest Hilgard

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Ernest Hilgard

dissociation theory

38

psychoactive drugs

chemicals that change the chemistry of the brain and induce an altered state of consciousness

39

blood-brain barrier

thick walls surrounding the brain's blood vessels that protect the brain from harmful chemicals

40

agonist

drugs that mimic neurotransmitters

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antagonists

drugs that block neurotransmitters

42

tolerance

a physiological change that produces a need for more of the same drug in order to achieve the same effect

43

reverse tolerance

the first dose lingers in the body and enhances the effect of the second dose although it may be smaller

44

depressants

drugs that slow down body processes

45

effects of alcohol

slowed down reactions and judgment, impaired motor coordination

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stimulants

drugs that speed up body processes

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examples of stimulants

caffeine, cocaine, amphetamines and nicotine

48

side effects of stimulants

disturbed sleep, reduced appetite, increased anxiety, heart problems

49

hallucinogens/psychedelics

drugs that cause changes in perceptions of reality, including sensory hallucinations, loss of identity, and vivid fantasies

50

examples of hallucinogens/psychedelics

LSD, peyote, psilocybin mushrooms, marajuana

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opiates

drugs that act as agonists for endorphins and reduce pain and elevate mood

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examples of opiates

morphine, heroin, methadone, codeine

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side effects of opiates

drowsiness, euphoria, physically addictive because they change brain chemistry quickly

54

frontal lobes

part of the cerebral cortex

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Broca's area

in the frontal lobe

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motor cortex

in the frontal lobe

57

parietal lobes

contains sensory cortex (somato-sensory cortex)

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sensory cortex (somato-sensory cortex)

receives incoming touch sensations from the rest of the body

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occipital lobes

at the very back of the brain

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temporal lobes

unlike occipital lobes, sound from either ear is processed in both temporal lobes

61

Wernicke's area

located in temporal lobe

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brain plasticity

the ability of other parts of the brain to take over functions of damaged regions. Declines as hemispheres of the cerebral cortex lateralize.

63

adrenal glands

produce adrenaline, which causes rest of body to go into fight or flight mode

64

Thomas Bouchard

conducted study on identical twins that found a correlation of 0.69 on IQ, criticized because their similar appearances may have led to their being treated similarly

65

Turner's syndrome

only one X chromosome in the 23rd pair

66

Klinefelter's syndrome

extra X chromosome

67

Down's syndrome

extra chromosome on the 21st pair