Developmental Psychology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Developmental Psychology Deck (65):
1

developmental psychology

the study of how behaviors and thoughts change over our entire lives

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cross-sectional research

participants of different ages to compare how certain variables may change over life span

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longitudinal research

study of one group of participants over time

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teratogens

certain chemicals or agents that can cause harm if ingested/contracted by the mother

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fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

displayed by children of mothers who drink heavily during pregnancy, small, malformed skulls and mental retardation are symptoms

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fetal alcohol effect

less severe version of FAS, learning disabilities or behavioral problems

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reflex

specific, inborn, automatic responses to certain specific stimuli

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rooting reflex

when touched on cheek, will turn head to put object in mouth

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sucking reflex

object in mouth will suck

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grasping reflex

object in hand or foot will grasp

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Moro reflex

startled, fling limbs out, quickly retract them, make himself as small as possible

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Babinski reflex

foot stroked, spread toes

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attachment

the reciprocal relationship between parent and child

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Henry Harlow

study on monkeys with two wire frame monkey mothers, one with milk, one that was soft

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Mary Ainsworth

conducted study on what infants would do if their parents left them alone, then came back

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secure attachments (66%)

Mary Ainsworth's baby experiment

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avoidant attachments (21%)

Mary Ainsworth's baby experiment

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nxious/ambivalent attachments (12%)

Mary Ainsworth's baby experiment

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authoritarian parenting style

strict standards for their children's behavior and apply punishments for violations of these rules

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effects of authoritarian parenting style

#NAME?

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permissive parenting style

unclear guidelines for their children; rules are constantly changed or aren't enforced consistently

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effects of permissive parenting style

emotional control problems are are more dependent

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authoritative parenting style

set, consistent standards that are reasonable and explained

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effects of authoritative parenting style

children are more socially capable and perform better academically

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continuity

developing steadily from birth to death

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discontinuity

developing with some stages of rapid growth and some of relatively little change

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psychosexual stages

theorized by Sigmund Freud

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oral (psychosexual stages)

first stage, pleasure through mouth

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anal (psychosexual stages)

second stage, toilet training

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phallic (psychosexual stages)

third stage, babies realize gender

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latency (psychosexual stages)

forth stage, calm and low psychosexual anxiety

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genital (psychosexual stages)

fifth and final stage, fixation here is normal

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Erik Erikson

neo-Freudian theoriest who believed in basics of Freud's theory but adapted it to fit his own observations

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psychosocial stage theory (eight stages)

created by Erik Erikson

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trust vs. mistrust

first stage of psychosocial stage theory

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autonomy vs. shame and doubt

second stage of psychosocial stage theory

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initiative vs. guilt

third stage of psychosocial stage theory

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industry vs. inferiority

fourth stage of psychosocial stage theory

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identity vs. role confusion

fifth stage of psychosocial stage theory

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intimacy vs. isolation

sixth stage of psychosocial stage theory

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generativity vs. stagnation

seventh stage of psychosocial stage theory

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integrity vs. despair

eighth stage of psychosocial stage theory

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Jean Piaget

created cognitive-development theory

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assimilation

the incorporation of experiences into existing schemata

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Jean Piaget's cognitive development stage theory

created by Jean Piaget

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sensorimotor stage (birth to about 2 years)

first stage of Jean Piaget's cognitive-development theory

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object permanence

objects continue to exist outside of visual range

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preoperational stage (2 to about 7 years)

second stage of Jean Piaget's cognitive-development theory

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concrete operations (8 to about 12 years)

third stage of Jean Piaget's cognitive-development theory

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concepts of conservation

the properties of objects remain the same even when their shapes change

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formal operations (12 years through adulthood)

fourth stage of Jean Piaget's cognitive-development theory

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abstract reasoning

manipulation of objects and contrasting ideas without seeing them

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hypothesis testing

reason from a hypothesis

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metacognition

thinking about thinking

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criticisms of Jean Piaget's cognitive development theory

#NAME?

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information processing model

a continuous alternative of Piaget's stage theory

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Lawrence Kohlberg

#NAME?

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Heinz dilemma

stealing a drug he cannot afford in order to save his wife's life

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preconventional

reasoning limited to how things affect themselves

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conventional

choice based on how others will view them

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postconventional

examines rights and values involved in choice

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Criticisms of Lawrence Kohlberg

Carol Gilligan noted that his research was based on boys, her research showed that boys and girls had different moral attitudes, but was later disproved

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biopsychological (neuropsychological) theory of gender development

studies demonstrate that biological differences do exist between the sexes

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psychodynamic theory of gender development

gender development is a competition for your opposite sex parent, when you realize you can't win, you imitate your same-sex parent

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social-cognitive theory of gender development

effects of society and thoughs about gender on role development