Testing and Individual Differences Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Testing and Individual Differences Deck (71):
1

standardized

tested on a standardization sample and made to fit norms

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standardization samples

a group of people representative of the people who normally will take the test

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reliability

results are consistent; can be duplicated

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split-half reliability

test is split into two, each half is tested, if the scores are consistent, then the test is reliable (the closer the correlation is to +1, the more reliable)

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equivalent-form reliability

correlation between performance on different forms of the test

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test-retest reliability

correlation between a person's score on one administration of the test with the same person's score on a subsequent administration of the test

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valid

measures what it's supposed to measure, accurate

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face validity

if it looks like it works

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content validity

how well a measure reflects the entire range of material it's supposed to be testing

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concurrent validity

measures how much of a characteristic a person has now

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predictive validity

measures future performance

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construct validity

correlates the new test with another already-proved-to-be-valid test

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aptitude test

test that measures ability or potential

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achievement test

test that measures what one has accomplished or learned

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speed test

large number of questions asked in a short amount of time, insufficient time is given

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power test

questions are asked in increasing difficulty level, sufficient time is given

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group test

test administered to a large group of people, less expensive, more objective

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individual test

test administered on a one-on-one basis, more expensive, less objective

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intelligence

the ability to gather and use information in productive ways

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fluid intelligence

the ability to solve abstract problems and pick up new information and skills, seems to decrease over time

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crystallized intelligence

the ability to use knowledge accumulated over time, seems to stay the same or increase over time

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Charles Spearman

intelligence theorist

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L.L. Thurstone

primary mental ability theory has seven main abilities: verbal comprehension, word fluency, number facility, spatial visualization, associative memory, perceptual speed and reasoning

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J.P. Guilford

primary mental ability theory has well over 100 different abilities

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Howard Gardner

multiple intelligences theorist

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Daniel Goldman

supports EQ (emotional intelligence)

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EQ (emotional intelligence)

ability to identify, assess, and control the emotions of oneself, of others, and of groups; helps people achieve what they want to achieve

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Robert Sternberg

created triarchic theory, which consists of

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componential/analytic intelligence

the ability to compare and contrast, explain, and analyze

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experiential intelligence

the ability to use their knowledge and experiences in new and creative ways

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contextual/practical intelligence

the ability to apply their knowledge to real-world situations

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Alfred Binet

wanted to design test to find children who would need help in school and created mental age

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mental age

an average 5-year-old will have the mental age of 5

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Louis Terman

a Stanford professor, came up with Stanford-Binet IQ test

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Stanford-Binet IQ test

-divide mental age by chronological age, then multiply by 100

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Weschler test

yields deviation IQ scores, mean is 100, standard deviation is 15, scores form a normal distribution

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heritability

a measure of how much of a trait's variation is explained by genetic factor

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Flynn effect

performance on intelligence tests has been increasing steadily throughout the century, probably due to better environmental factors

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somatotype theory

William Sheldon

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endomorphs (fat)

according to William Sheldon

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mesomorphs (muscular)

according to William Sheldon

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ectomorphs (thin)

according to William Sheldon

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Albert Bandura

believed that personality is created by an interaction between the person (traits), the environment, and the person's behavior

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triadic reciprocality/reciprocal determinism

the person (traits), the environment, and the person's behavior each influence both of the other two in a constant looplike fashion

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self-efficacy

Refers to one's belief about one's ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes. Those with high levels for a particular task are more likely to succeed than those with low levels

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George Kelley

proposed personal-construct theory of personality

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personal-construct theory of personality

George Kelley

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locus of control

Julian Rotter

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determinism

the belief that what happens is dictated by what has happened in the past

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free will

an individual's ability to choose his or her own destiny

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humanistic psychology

also called the third force

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self-concept

a person's global feeling about himself and herself

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self-esteem

A measure of how much you value and respect yourself

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self-actualize

to reach one's full potential

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self-theory

created by Carl Rogers

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unconditional positive regard

a kind of blanket acceptance important in Carl Rogers' self-theory

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projective tests

used by psychoanalysts

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self-report inventories

questionnaires that ask people to provide information about themselves

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Barnum effect

the tendency for people to see themselves in vague, stock descriptions of personality

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metacognition

thinking about thinking

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criticisms of Jean Piaget's cognitive development theory

#NAME?

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information processing model

a continuous alternative of Piaget's stage theory

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Lawrence Kohlberg

#NAME?

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Heinz dilemma

stealing a drug he cannot afford in order to save his wife's life

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preconventional

reasoning limited to how things affect themselves

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conventional

choice based on how others will view them

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postconventional

examines rights and values involved in choice

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Criticisms of Lawrence Kohlberg

Carol Gilligan noted that his research was based on boys, her research showed that boys and girls had different moral attitudes, but was later disproved

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biopsychological (neuropsychological) theory of gender development

studies demonstrate that biological differences do exist between the sexes

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psychodynamic theory of gender development

gender development is a competition for your opposite sex parent, when you realize you can't win, you imitate your same-sex parent

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social-cognitive theory of gender development

effects of society and thoughs about gender on role development