Motivation and Emotion Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > Motivation and Emotion > Flashcards

Flashcards in Motivation and Emotion Deck (51):
1

motivations

feelings or ideas that cause us to act toward a goal

2

Drive Reduction Theory

behavior is motivated by biological needs

3

need

one of our requirements for survival

4

drive

an impulse to act in a way that satisfies this need

5

homeostasis

a balanced internal state

6

primary drives

biological needs

7

secondary drives

learned drives

8

arousal theory

motivated by the need for an optimum level of excitement or arousal

9

Yerkes-Dodson law

relationship between performance and arousal that states that performance increases with physiological or mental arousal, but only up to a point

10

Incentive Theory

behavior is not pushed by a need, but by a desire (incentive)

11

incentive

stimuli that we are drawn to due to learning

12

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

basic needs are fulfilled before other needs

13

hunger motivation

stomach feels full --> we feel full (balloon experiment)

14

lateral hypothalamus

causes animal to eat when stimulated

15

ventromedial hypothalamus

causes animal to feel full when stimulated

16

set-point theory

the hypothalamus wants to maintain a certain optimum body weight

17

metabolic rate

how quickly body uses energy

18

externals

people whoa re motivated to eat by external food cues, such as attractiveness or availability

19

internals

people who are ore motivated to eat by internal hunger cues (empty stomach)

20

Garcia effect

taste aversion, when nausea and a food are paired, the food will be averted in the future

21

bulimia

has two phases: binging and purging

22

binging

eating large amounts of food in a short amount of time

23

purging

getting rid of food through vomiting, excessive exercise, or laxative use.

24

anorexia nervosa

starving yourself to below 85% of normal body weight: vast majority are women

25

obesity

severely overweight, unhealthy eating habits, some are genetically predisposed

26

William Masters and Virginia Johnson

Sexual Response Cycle

27

Sexual Response Cycle

created by William Masters and Virginia Johnson

28

initial excitement (Sexual Response Cycle)

genital areas become engorged with blood, penis becomes erect, clitoris swells, respiration and heart rate increase

29

plateau phase (Sexual Response Cycle)

respiration and heart rate continue at an elevated level, genitals secrete fluids in preparation for coitus

30

orgasm (Sexual Response Cycle)

rhythmic genital contractions that may help conception, respiration and heart rate increase further, males ejaculate, often accompanied by a pleasurable euphoria

31

resolution (Sexual Response Cycle)

respiration and heart rate return to normal resting states, men experience a refractory period- a time period that must elapse before another orgasm, women do not have a similar refractory period and can repeat the cycle immediately

32

achievement motivation

desire to master complex tasks and knowledge, desire to reach personal goals, desire to figure out world

33

extrinsic motivators

rewards received for accomplishments that are outside ourselves

34

intrinsic motivators

rewards we get internally

35

Management Theory

consists of theory x and theory y

36

theory x (Management Theory)

(legalism) people will only work for benefits or threatened with punishments

37

theory y (Management Theory)

employees are internally motivated to do good work

38

approach-approach conflict

decision between two favorable outcomes

39

avoidance-avoidance conflict

decision between two unfavorable outcomes

40

approach-avoidance conflict

one event/goal has both good and bad outcomes

41

James-Lange theory

the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli

42

Cannon-Bard theory

theory of emotion that the body changes and understanding of the emotion occurs simultaneously from cues in the thalamus

43

Two Factor Theory

Stanley Schacter

44

Stanley Schacter

created Two Factor Theory

45

stressors

stressful life events

46

stress reactions

reactions to stressors

47

social readjustment rating scale (SRRS)

designed by Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe

48

General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)

created by Hans Seyle

49

alarm reaction (GAS)

heart rate increases, blood is diverted away from other body functions to muscles needed to react, activates the sympathetic nervous system

50

resistance (GAS)

hormones are released t maintain physiological readiness described in alarm reaction, if it lasts too long, can deplete resources

51

exhaustion (GAS)

parasympathetic nervous system returns body back to normal, more vulnerable to disease especially if resources were depleted