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AP Psychology > Learning > Flashcards

Flashcards in Learning Deck (102)
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Learning

long-lasting change in behavior resulting from experience

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Classical conditioning

type of learning where people and animals can learn to associate neutral stimuli (ex: sound) with stimuli that produce reflexive, involuntary responses (ex: food) and will learn to respond similarly to the new stimulus as they did to the old one (ex: salivate).

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Neutral stimuli

stimuli that only focuses attention

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Unconditioned stimulus/US/UCS

original stimulus that elicits a natural, reflexive response

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Unconditioned response/UR/UCR

the natural response elicited from the unconditioned stimulus

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Conditioned response/CR

the learned response to a previously neutral stimulus

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Conditioned stimulus/CS

the originally irrelevant stimulus that now triggers a conditioned response after association with an unconditioned stimulus

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Acquisition

the acquiring of a new behavior that occurs once one responds to the CS without the US present

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Delayed conditioning

acquisition with the presentation of the CS followed by the US

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Trace conditioning

acquisition with the presentation of the CS, followed by a short break, followed by the presentation of the US

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Simultaneous conditioning

acquisition with the presentation of the CS and the US at the same time

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Backward conditioning

acquisition with the US presented first, followed by the CS

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Extinction

the process of unlearning a behavior, achieved when the CS no longer elicits the CR

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Spontaneous recovery

phenomenon where the CR briefly reappears upon presentation of the CS after a CR has been extinguished and no further training has taken place

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Generalization

the tendency to respond to similar CS'

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Discrimination

the ability to tell the difference between various stimuli

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Aversive conditioning

conditioning to avoid the US

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Second-order/Higher-order conditioning

the brief use of a CS as a US to elicit a new stimulus (only possible once a CS elicits a CR)

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Learned taste aversions

the aversion developed to certain foods due to illness after ingestion

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Salient stimuli

easily noticeable stimuli

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Garcia effect

the ease with which animals learn taste aversions that occurs whenever nausea is paired with food or drink

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Operant conditioning

type of learning based on the association of consequences with behaviors

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Law of Effect

law that states that if consequences to a behavior are pleasant, the stimulus-response connection will be strengthened, increasing the likelihood of that behavior; if consequences to a behavior are unpleasant, the stimulus-response connection will weaken, lessening the likelihood of that behavior

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Skinner Box

a box that delivers food to animals with a lever to press or disk to peck

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Reinforcer

any event that makes the behavior more likely to occur

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Reinforcement

the process of reinforcing a behavior

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Positive reinforcement

the addition of something to increase the likelihood of a behavior occurring

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Negative reinforcement

the removal of something to increase the likelihood of a behavior occurring

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Escape learning

the termination of an aversive stimulus

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Avoidance learning

the avoidance of an aversive stimulus