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AP Psychology > Learning > Flashcards

Flashcards in Learning Deck (102):
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Learning

long-lasting change in behavior resulting from experience

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Classical conditioning

type of learning where people and animals can learn to associate neutral stimuli (ex: sound) with stimuli that produce reflexive, involuntary responses (ex: food) and will learn to respond similarly to the new stimulus as they did to the old one (ex: salivate).

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Neutral stimuli

stimuli that only focuses attention

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Unconditioned stimulus/US/UCS

original stimulus that elicits a natural, reflexive response

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Unconditioned response/UR/UCR

the natural response elicited from the unconditioned stimulus

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Conditioned response/CR

the learned response to a previously neutral stimulus

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Conditioned stimulus/CS

the originally irrelevant stimulus that now triggers a conditioned response after association with an unconditioned stimulus

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Acquisition

the acquiring of a new behavior that occurs once one responds to the CS without the US present

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Delayed conditioning

acquisition with the presentation of the CS followed by the US

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Trace conditioning

acquisition with the presentation of the CS, followed by a short break, followed by the presentation of the US

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Simultaneous conditioning

acquisition with the presentation of the CS and the US at the same time

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Backward conditioning

acquisition with the US presented first, followed by the CS

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Extinction

the process of unlearning a behavior, achieved when the CS no longer elicits the CR

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Spontaneous recovery

phenomenon where the CR briefly reappears upon presentation of the CS after a CR has been extinguished and no further training has taken place

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Generalization

the tendency to respond to similar CS'

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Discrimination

the ability to tell the difference between various stimuli

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Aversive conditioning

conditioning to avoid the US

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Second-order/Higher-order conditioning

the brief use of a CS as a US to elicit a new stimulus (only possible once a CS elicits a CR)

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Learned taste aversions

the aversion developed to certain foods due to illness after ingestion

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Salient stimuli

easily noticeable stimuli

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Garcia effect

the ease with which animals learn taste aversions that occurs whenever nausea is paired with food or drink

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Operant conditioning

type of learning based on the association of consequences with behaviors

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Law of Effect

law that states that if consequences to a behavior are pleasant, the stimulus-response connection will be strengthened, increasing the likelihood of that behavior; if consequences to a behavior are unpleasant, the stimulus-response connection will weaken, lessening the likelihood of that behavior

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Skinner Box

a box that delivers food to animals with a lever to press or disk to peck

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Reinforcer

any event that makes the behavior more likely to occur

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Reinforcement

the process of reinforcing a behavior

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Positive reinforcement

the addition of something to increase the likelihood of a behavior occurring

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Negative reinforcement

the removal of something to increase the likelihood of a behavior occurring

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Escape learning

the termination of an aversive stimulus

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Avoidance learning

the avoidance of an aversive stimulus

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Punishment

anything that makes a behavior less likely to occur

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Positive punishment (usually referred to as punishment)

the addition of something unpleasant to make a behavior less likely to occur

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Omission training/negative punishment

the removal of something pleasant to make a behavior less likely to occur

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Shaping

technique that reinforces the small steps used to reach the desired behavior

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Chaining

technique that links together separate behaviors into a complex activity

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Primary reinforcers

reinforcers that are rewarding

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Secondary reinforcers

reinforcers that we value

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Token economy

system that uses tokens as rewards for performing desired behaviors

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Premack principle

principle that states that more probable behaviors can be used to reinforce less probable behaviors

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Continuous reinforcement

the reward of a desired behavior continuously

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Partial-reinforcement schedules

the reward of a desired behavior intermittently

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Partial-reinforcement effect

the phenomenon where behaviors will be more resistant to extinction if not reinforced continuously

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Fixed-ratio schedule (FR)

schedule that requires a set number of responses before a response results in reinforcement

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Variable-ratio schedule (VR)

schedule that varies the number of responses before a response results in reinforcement

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Fixed-interval schedule (FI)

schedule that requires that a certain amount of time elapses before a response will result in reinforcement

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Variable-interval schedule (VI)

schedule that varies the amount of time that elapses before a response will result in reinforcement

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Instinctive drift

the tendency for animals to forgo rewards to pursue their typical patterns of behavior

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Cognitive learning

type of learning that depends on processes not directly observable that argues conditioning has a cognitive component

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Contiguity model (V1)

the Pavlovian model that postulates that the more times things are paired, the greater the learning that will take place

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Contingency model (V2)

model that postulates that A is contingent upon B when A depends on B and vice versa

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Observational learning/modeling

type of learning that occurs through the observation of a behavior

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Latent learning

type of learning that becomes obvious only once reinforcement is given for demonstrating it

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Abstract learning

type of learning that involves understanding concepts rather than learning simply to secure a reward

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Insight learning

type of learning that occurs when one suddenly realizes how to solve a problem

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token economy

behavioral therapy

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modeling

behavioral therapy

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attributional style

a person's characteristic way of explaining outcomes of events in his or her life

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Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT or RET)

Cognitive behavioral therapy developed by Albert Ellis. Therapists look to expose and confront the dysfunctional thoughts of their clients.

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cognitive therapy

developed by Aaron Beck, usually used in treatment of depression, involves trying to get clients to engage in pursuits that will bring them success

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cognitive triad

theorized by Aaron Beck

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family therapy

a type of group therapy used to treat families

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self-help groups

a type of group therapy that does not involve a therapist

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psychopharmacology/chemotherapy

the use of drugs to treat psychological problems

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antipsychotic drugs (neuroleptics)

block the receptor sites for dopamine, used to treat schizophrenia, may result in tardive dyskinesia

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tardive dyskinesia

Parkinsonian-like, chronic muscle tremors

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drugs used to treat unipolar depression

tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, and serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor drugs (Prozac) which all tend to increase the activity of serotonin

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lithium

a metal used to trea the manic phase of bipolar disorder

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drugs used to treat anxiety disorders

barbiturates (Miltown) and benzodiazepines (Xanax and Valium)

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electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

when an electric current is passed through one (unilateral ECT) or both (bilateral ECT) hemispheres of the brain

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psychosurgery

the purposeful destruction of part of the brain to alter a person's behavior

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prefrontal lobotomy

a type of psychosurgery

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psychiatrists

medical doctors and are the only therapists permitted to prescribe medication

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clinical psychologists

psychologists with a Ph. D. and specialize in research, assessment, and therapy

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counseling psychologists

psychologists with a graduate degree in psychology and treat less severe problems than clinical psychologists do

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psychoanalysts

people trained specifically in Freudian methods who may or may not hold medical degrees

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paraphilia

the sexual attraction to an object, person, or activity not usually seen as sexual

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fetishism

paraphilia

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pedophilia

paraphilia

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zoophilia

paraphilia

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voyeur

paraphilia

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masochist

paraphilia

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sadist

paraphilia

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antisocial personality disorder

little regard for other people's feelings

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dependent personality disorder

rely too much on the attention and help of others

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paranoid personality disorder

feel persecuted

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narcissistic personality disorder

seeing oneself as the center of the universe

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histronic personality disorder

overly dramatic behavior

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obsessive-compulsive personality disorder

overly concerned with certain thoughts and performing certain behaviors, but not to the point of obsessive compulsive disorder

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anorexia nervosa

eating disorder

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bulimia

eating disorder

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substance use disorder

regular and negative use of alcohol or other drugs that alter behavior

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substance dependence

addiction

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autism

developmental disorder

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attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

developmental disorder

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Rosenhan Study

study in which healthy individuals were admitted into mental hospitals after saying they were hearing voices. Once in, they acted normally and still were not labeled as impostors.

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preconventional

reasoning limited to how things affect themselves

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conventional

choice based on how others will view them

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postconventional

examines rights and values involved in choice

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Criticisms of Lawrence Kohlberg

Carol Gilligan noted that his research was based on boys, her research showed that boys and girls had different moral attitudes, but was later disproved

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biopsychological (neuropsychological) theory of gender development

studies demonstrate that biological differences do exist between the sexes

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psychodynamic theory of gender development

gender development is a competition for your opposite sex parent, when you realize you can't win, you imitate your same-sex parent

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social-cognitive theory of gender development

effects of society and thoughs about gender on role development