Lecture 16 - Disorder of gait Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 16 - Disorder of gait Deck (68):
1

What are the types of contractions?

Tonic and phasic

2

What is tonic contraction?

Constant contraction of muscle fibers that maintains muscular and postural integrity

3

What is phasic contraction?

Contraction of muscle fiber beyond tonic contraction, via short bursts

4

What are two types of phasic contraction?

Isotonic and isometric

5

What is isotonic contraction?

Change in muscle length occurs with contraction

6

What is isometric contraction?

Contraction does not result in change in muscle length but instead goes against force

7

What are two types of isotonic contraction?

Concentric and eccentric

8

What is concentric contraction?

Muscle shortening

9

What is eccentric contraction?

Muscle lengthening

10

What are carnivora's limbs used for?

Manipulation

11

What are the characteristics of carnivora's limbs?

more mobile limbs and more flexible back

12

What are cursorial herbivores limbs used for?

Solely for posture and locomotion

13

What are the characteristics of cursorial herbivores limbs?

More rigid backs and limbs

14

What does the Gluteal nn. cause in the hip?

Abduction, flexion, and extension

15

What does the Obturator n. cause in the hip?

Adduction and flexion

16

What does the Femoral n. cause in the hip?

Flexion

17

What does the Sciatic n. cause in the hip?

Extension

18

What does the Femoral n. cause in the stifle?

Extension

19

What does the Sciatic n. cause in the stifle?

Extension and flexion

20

What does the Obturator n. cause in the hock?

Extension

21

What does the Tibial n. cause in the tarsal jt?

Extension

22

What does the Fibular n. cause in the tarsal jt?

Flexion

23

What does the Tibial n. cause in the digital jt?

Flexion

24

What does the Fibular n. cause in the digital jt?

Extension

25

What does the Accessory n. cause in the shoulder?

Elevation and advancement

26

What does the Thoracodorsal n. cause in the shoulder?

Retraction

27

What does the Long Thoracic n. cause in the shoulder?

Depression

28

What does the Suprascapular n. cause in the Gleno-humeral joint?

Extension

29

What does the Radial n. cause in the Gleno-humeral joint?

Extension

30

What does the Subscapular n. and Pectoral nn. cause in the Gleno-humeral joint?

Adduction

31

What does the Axillary n. cause in the Gleno-humeral joint?

Flexion

32

What does the Thoracodorsal n. cause in the Gleno-humeral joint?

Abduction

33

What does the Radial n. cause in the elbow?

Extension and supination

34

What does the Musculocutaneous n. cause in the elbow?

Flexion and supination

35

What does the Median n. cause in the elbow?

Pronation

36

What does the Radial n. cause in the carpal joints?

Extension

37

What does the Median n. cause in the carpal joints?

Flexion

38

What does the Radial n. cause in the digital joints?

Extension

39

What does the median n. and ulnar n. cause in the digital joints?

Flexion

40

What damage does a lesion of the suprascapular n. cause to the muscles?

Paralysis of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus

41

What dysfunction in movement would you see with a lesion to suprascapular n.?

No affect on standing posture
Shoulder slip

42

What is a shoulder slip?

May result in obvious lateral movement of shoulder joint during walking

43

What happens to the muscles over time?

Wasting of muscle along scapular spine

44

What is one way to damage the suprascapular n.

Overabduction or violent retraction of scapula may stretch nerve agains scapula

45

What are the consequences of radial n. palsy?

Paralysis of elbow extensors and carpal digital extensors
Anesthesia of skin territory

46

What is the radial nerve related to? What is the downside of that?

Humerus. If broken can injure nerve

47

What happens if the injury to the radial n. occurs at the proximal to middle part of brachium?

All three dysfunctions

48

What happens if the injury to the radial n. occurs at the distal part of the brachium?

Carpal and digital extensor paralysis
Anesthesia of skin

49

What happens if the injury occurs beyond distal motor branches of the radial n. ?

Skin numbness

50

Where do the motor branches stop in the radial n.?

Distal antebrachium or manus

51

What happens when the damage to the radial n. is proximal to the origin of tricep innervation?

Very serious
No flexion of elbow
No weight bearing on limb
Foot drags on dorsal surface

52

What are the consequences of femoral n. palsy?

Paralysis of quadriceps

53

What happens when the quadriceps are paralyzed?

Precludes fixation of stifle joint
Limb cant support weight

54

Can the animal compensate with a femoral n. palsy?

No

55

What is locked patella?

Neuromuscular disorder; persistent and temporary lock

56

What is a persistent lock?

Section of medial patellar ligament affected

57

What is a temporary lock?

Can be fixed by startling the horse into a sudden movement

58

What happens with a rupture of the peronius tertius?

Permits extension of hock while stifle is flexed

59

What is the reciprocal mechanism?

Ensure stifle and hock in unison

60

What tendons aid in the reciprocal mechanism?

Peroneus tertius and Flexor digitorum superficialis

61

What is the direction of the peroneus tertius tendon?

Cranial to tibia

62

What is the direction of the flexor digitorum superficialis?

Caudal to tibia

63

When is the stifle fully locked?

When horse takes most of weight on that limb and rests on toe of the hoof

64

What occurs when stifle is locked?

Weight of hindquarters tends to flex hock
Opposed by tension in superficial flexor caudal to tibia
Peroneus tertius superfluous in animal standing quietly

65

In the passive stay apparatus of pelvic limb where does the caudal mass of the trunk rest on?

Head of femur

66

What does the center of mass cause caudal to the stifle if unsupported?

flexion

67

What does the center of mass cause cranial to the hock if unsupported?

flexion

68

What does the center of mass cause crainal to the fetlock if unsupported?

extension