Lecture 33 - Mammalian teeth Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 33 - Mammalian teeth Deck (81):
0

What are the advantages of endothermy?

Exploit wider range of thermal environments
Mammals can have a higher basal metabolic rate

1

What does a higher metabolic rate allow for?

Higher rate of sustained activity

2

What is thecodonty?

Mammal's teeth are anchored within bony sockets of the jaw

3

What is diphyodonty?

Mammals have two different sets of dentition

4

What are the two sets of dentition?

Milk drinking
-- and --
Permanent

5

What is heterodonty?

Mammals have different teeth in different parts of the mouth that have different functions

6

What direction is mesial?

Towards anterior portion of the mouth

7

What is distal?

Towards posterior portion of the mouth

8

What is lingual?

Towards the tongue

9

What is buccal?

Towards the cheek

10

What is labial?

Towards the lips

11

What are the two regions of the tooth?

Crown and root

12

What covers the crown?

Enamel

13

What covers the root?

Cementum

14

What makes up most of the tooth?

Detine

15

What is within pulp?

Nerves and blood vessels

16

What do the nerves and vessels enter the tooth through?

Apical foramen

17

What is the boney socket in which the tooth is called?

Alveolus

18

What holds in the tooth?

Periodontal ligament

19

What are the four types of mammalian teeth?

Incisors - Canines - Premolars - Molars

20

What are molars for?

Fracturing

21

What are premolars for?

Fracturing

22

What are canines for?

Gripping

23

What are incisors used for?

Gripping and cracking

24

What is the dental formula for marsupials (metatherians)?

I5-C1-P3-M4
I4-C1-P3-M$

25

What is the dental formula for eutherians (placental mammals)?

I3-C1-P3-M4
same

26

What is the dental formula for dogs?

I3-C1-P4-M2
I3-C1-P4-M3

27

What is the dental formula for cats?

I3-C1-P3-M1
I3-C1-P2-M1

28

What are pigs dental formula?

Same as eutherians

29

What is polyphyodonty?

Teeth are constantly replaced

30

Where is the primordium of the permanent tooth located in relation to the deciduous tooth?

Lingual side

31

What part of the permanent tooth forms first?

Crown

32

What happens before the permanent tooth can push out the deciduous?

Root of the deciduous is resorbed

33

What pushes the permanent tooth up?

Formation of the root

34

What is different about the formation of molars?

Only have permanent?

35

Why is grip important?

Grasping food item and transferring to mouth

36

Why do animals chew?

To fracture food

37

What does soft food require from teeth?

Long slices

38

What does tough shelled with soft contents require from teeth?

Puncturing and/or cracking of shell with little processing after

39

What does softer shell with inner contents that require processing need from teeth?

Puncturing and/or cracking of shell with crushing/grinding of inner contents

40

What does tough fibrous materials need for processing?

Large amount of grinding and maceration to break down cellulose

41

What is imprecise occlusion?

Cusps of contact surface cheek teeth do not occlude accurately with each other

42

What is precise occlusion?

Cheek teeth occlude precisely with each other in a proscribed manner that is associated directly with food processing

43

What is different about carnivora teeth?

Upper teeth bite on buccal side of lower ones in shearing motion
Preludes lateral movement of the jaw
No grinding

44

What are large incisors and canines for in carnivora?

For capturing prey and removing large chunks

45

What are carnassial teeth?

Upper P4 and lower M1

46

What are carnassial teeth used for?

Form two long blades that act like scissors to slice meat

47

What is another name for carnassial teeth?

Sectorial teeth

48

What are bunodont teeth?

Teeth that have low-rounded cusps

49

What animals have bunodont teeth?

Gorilla and wild boar

50

What happens as animal ages with bunodont teeth?

Create dentine pits or bowls which opposing cusps fit

51

What has occurred with swine canines?

Have become tusks

52

What is the function of tusks?

Fighting

53

When do canines stop growing in sows?

2 years

54

What are two adaptations of a herbivore diet?

Browsing and Grazing

55

What is a browsing diet?

Woody dicot plants

56

What is a grazing diet?

Primarily monocot plants

57

What are lophodont teeth?

Teeth with ridges connecting molar cusps

58

What are loxodont teeth?

Extreme lophodonty

59

What animals have lophodont teeth?

Chinchillam Taprius

60

What animals have loxodont teeth?

Mammoths and elephants
Some rodents

61

What are selenodont teeth?

Teeth with long mesio-distal crescent

62

What animal have selenodont teeth?

American bison

63

What is brachydonty?

Low-crowned teeth
With longer roots

64

What is hypsodonty?

High-crowned teeth with long crowns and short roots

65

What is high amount of hypsodonty related to?

Exogenous grit in diet

66

What is lacking in ruminants?

Upper incisors and canine

67

What is lower canine called in ruminants?

Fourth incisor

68

What is a diastema?

Space between anterior and cheek teeth

69

What is the adaptation of the dental pad in browsers?

Narrower - allows for finer control of what food parts are consumed

70

What is the adaptation of the dental pad in grazers?

Wide dental pad - Allows for cropping of more grass with each bite

71

What is the structure of the decidous incisors of a newborn calf?

Enamel still surrounds the crown

72

What happens to the teeth of a two year old ruminant?

I1 has been replaced
Distal border of I1 is slightly word, dentine is exposed

73

What is the characteristics of tooth wear in a three and a half year old calf?

I1, 2, and 3 are permanent
I4 still deciduous
Occlusal surface of I2 - wider than I 3

74

What is the characteristics of tooth wear in a eight year old ruminant?

Lingual edge of occlusal surgace of I1 and 2 is smooth

75

What are the characteristics of the cheek teeth in ruminants?

Selenodont
Hypsodont
Increase in size distally

76

What are the characteristics of a grazer's incisors?

Hypsodont
Roots converge so upper and dental arcades form wide grasping surface

77

What are the characteristics of canines in grazers?

usual only males
Large roots into maxillary sinus
Small crowns

78

What are the characteristics of cheek teeth?

Selenodont
Complex enamel folding - florets

79

What is a wolf tooth?

Upper P1 - often fails to develope

80

What are dental caries?

Cavity formed in the enamel and dentine of the tooth