Lecture 19 - Nervous system of the head Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 19 - Nervous system of the head Deck (55):
1

What type of brain/head does a chordate have?

No skull or brain

2

What type of brain/head does a primitive vertebrate have?

Skull and tripartite brain

3

What type of respiratory system does a chordate have?

Non-muscular pharynx and water moved by cilia

4

What type of respiratory system does a primitive vertebrate have?

Muscular pharynx and water moved by muscles

5

What type of digestive system does a chordate have?

Ciliated gut action and intracellular digestion

6

What type of digestive system does a primitive vertebrate have?

Peristaltic muscular gut
Extracellular digestion

7

What type of circulation system does a chordate have?

Contracting vessels

8

What type of circulation system does a primitive vertebrate have?

Pumping heart, blood transport, gases and RBC's

9

What type of osmoregulatory system does a chordate have?

Passive coelomic feeding

10

What type of osmoregulatory system does a primitive vertebrate have?

Glomerular kidney

11

What type of locomotion does a chordate have?

Notochord main support / simple myomeres

12

What type of locomotion does a primitive vertebrate have?

Vertebral main support, complex (W) myomeres

13

What are the things that developed that separated craniatas from the rest of the craniatas?

Pharyngeal system, cranium, paired sensory organs, neural crest, and tripartite brain

14

What is the fundamental vertebrate adaptation?

HEAD

15

What does a head require?

A neural crest

16

What are the three layers of the epiblast?

Endoderm - Mesoderm - Ectoderm

17

What is the "head" derived from?

Ectoderm

18

What all derives from the ectoderm?

CNS, PNS, epidermis, and CT of the head

19

What day does neurulation begin?

day 17

20

Where is the notochord located?

Mesoderm

21

What does the notochord induce?

Ectoderm to form neural plate

22

What does the neural plate become?

Neural groove -- Neural tube

23

What does the neural tube form?

CNS

24

Where does the neural crest rise from?

Ectoderm near the neural tube

25

What does the neural crest form?

PNS and other structures

26

What three embryonic structures are unique to vertebrates?

Neural crest, neurogenic placodes, and muscularized hypomere

27

What is the hypomere?

Part of the myotome that forms muscles of the body wall and is innervated by a branch of the spinal nerve

28

Where do some sensory neurons derive from?

Neural crest

29

What so the sensory neuron from the neural crest do?

Provide critical information of muscle contraction and wide range of crest-derived exteroreceptors

30

What do the sensory receptors of the neural crest sense?

Temperature and tactile stimuli

31

What are the sense organs developed from?

Neurogenic/ectodermal placodes

32

What do the ectodermal placodes + neural crest form?

Sensory ganglia for CN's V, VII, IX, and X

33

What is the pattern of head innervation based on?

gill arches

34

Where are two places in the brain that the CN's come from?

Cortex/cerebrum
-- and --
Brainstem

35

How many cranial nerves are there?

12

36

What is CN I?

Olfactory

37

What is CN II?

Optic

38

What is CN III?

Oculomotor

39

What is CN IV?

Trochlear

40

What is CN V?

Trigeminal

41

What is CN VI?

Abducent

42

What is CN VII?

Facial

43

What is CN VIII?

Vestibulocochlear

44

What is CN IX?

Glossopharyngeal

45

What is CN X?

Vagus

46

What is CN XI?

Accessory

47

What is CN XII?

Hypoglossal

48

What CN's carry PNS?

III, VII, IX, and X

49

What does CN III do alone?

Constrict the pupil

50

What does CN VII do alone?

Innervate secretory cells for saliva, tear, and mucus production

51

What does CN IX do alone?

Innervate secretory for saliva production

52

What does CN X do alone?

Innervation of thoracic and abdominal organs

53

What does CN III, VII, and IX innervate together?

Specially named parasympathetic ganglia

54

What CN's partake in SNS of the head?

None, the body innervates the head

55

What does the SNS do in the head?

Dilate the pupils and constrict arteries