Flashcards in Lecture 19 - Nervous system of the head Deck (55):
What type of brain/head does a chordate have?
No skull or brain
What type of brain/head does a primitive vertebrate have?
Skull and tripartite brain
What type of respiratory system does a chordate have?
Non-muscular pharynx and water moved by cilia
What type of respiratory system does a primitive vertebrate have?
Muscular pharynx and water moved by muscles
What type of digestive system does a chordate have?
Ciliated gut action and intracellular digestion
What type of digestive system does a primitive vertebrate have?
Peristaltic muscular gut
What type of circulation system does a chordate have?
What type of circulation system does a primitive vertebrate have?
Pumping heart, blood transport, gases and RBC's
What type of osmoregulatory system does a chordate have?
Passive coelomic feeding
What type of osmoregulatory system does a primitive vertebrate have?
What type of locomotion does a chordate have?
Notochord main support / simple myomeres
What type of locomotion does a primitive vertebrate have?
Vertebral main support, complex (W) myomeres
What are the things that developed that separated craniatas from the rest of the craniatas?
Pharyngeal system, cranium, paired sensory organs, neural crest, and tripartite brain
What is the fundamental vertebrate adaptation?
What does a head require?
A neural crest
What are the three layers of the epiblast?
Endoderm - Mesoderm - Ectoderm
What is the "head" derived from?
What all derives from the ectoderm?
CNS, PNS, epidermis, and CT of the head
What day does neurulation begin?
Where is the notochord located?
What does the notochord induce?
Ectoderm to form neural plate
What does the neural plate become?
Neural groove -- Neural tube
What does the neural tube form?
Where does the neural crest rise from?
Ectoderm near the neural tube
What does the neural crest form?
PNS and other structures
What three embryonic structures are unique to vertebrates?
Neural crest, neurogenic placodes, and muscularized hypomere
What is the hypomere?
Part of the myotome that forms muscles of the body wall and is innervated by a branch of the spinal nerve
Where do some sensory neurons derive from?
What so the sensory neuron from the neural crest do?
Provide critical information of muscle contraction and wide range of crest-derived exteroreceptors
What do the sensory receptors of the neural crest sense?
Temperature and tactile stimuli
What are the sense organs developed from?
What do the ectodermal placodes + neural crest form?
Sensory ganglia for CN's V, VII, IX, and X
What is the pattern of head innervation based on?
Where are two places in the brain that the CN's come from?
-- and --
How many cranial nerves are there?
What is CN I?
What is CN II?
What is CN III?
What is CN IV?
What is CN V?
What is CN VI?
What is CN VII?
What is CN VIII?
What is CN IX?
What is CN X?
What is CN XI?
What is CN XII?
What CN's carry PNS?
III, VII, IX, and X
What does CN III do alone?
Constrict the pupil
What does CN VII do alone?
Innervate secretory cells for saliva, tear, and mucus production
What does CN IX do alone?
Innervate secretory for saliva production
What does CN X do alone?
Innervation of thoracic and abdominal organs
What does CN III, VII, and IX innervate together?
Specially named parasympathetic ganglia
What CN's partake in SNS of the head?
None, the body innervates the head