Lecture 17 - The Neck I Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Lecture 17 - The Neck I > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 17 - The Neck I Deck (53):
1

Where is the thoracic inlet?

Space bounded by first rib, sternum and T1 vertebra

2

What is the primary function of the thoracic inlet?

Primary passage way for structures between neck and thorax

3

What does the vertebral column articulate with?

Occipital bone

4

What are the main dorsocaudal features of the skull?

External occipital protuberance, nuchal crest, and mastoid process

5

From rostral to caudal, list the main structures of the ventral portion of the skull?

Foramen lacerum, jugular foramen, hypoglossal canal, occipital condyle

6

What is the normal number of cervical vertebra?

7

7

What is the hyoid apparatus? (not function)

Bones running from temporal bones of skull into the neck

8

What is the function of the hyoid apparatus?

Supporting the tongue, larynx, and pharynx

9

Where are the laryngeal cartilages?

Cartilages at cranial end of the airway

10

What is another name for C1?

Atlas

11

What is the name for the facets on C1 what do they articulate with?

Articular facets, articulate with the occipital condyle

12

What is a special structure of the C1?

Large transverse processes called wings or Alar processes

13

What are the palpable landmarks of the atlas and axis?

Wing of atlas and the spinous process of the axis

14

What are you unable to feel of the axis and atlas in horses and ruminants?

Spine of the axis

15

Why are you unable to feel the spine of the axis in a horse?

Presence of a fatty crest and the cranial extent of the funicular portion of the ligamentum nuchae

16

What are the three parts of the hyoid apparatus?

Stylohyoid, basihyoid, and thyrohyoid

17

What is the stylohyoid?

Articulates with temporal bone (adjacent to the mastoid) via cartilage

18

What is the cartilage that is associated with the stylohyoid?

Tympanohyoid cart.

19

What is the basihyoid?

Unpaired, anchored in the musculature of the tongue

20

What is the thyrohyoid?

Articulates with the thyroid cartilage

21

What are the four dorsal muscles of the vertebral column?

Spinalis, semispinalis, longissimus, and splenius

22

What is the origin of the splenius?

T1-T3 spines and cervical midline raphe

23

What is the insertion of the splenius?

Nuchal crest and mastoid

24

What nerve innervates the splenius?

Dorsal rami

25

What is the action of the splenius?

Extend head and neck, some lateral bending of cervical region

26

What are the three ventral vertebral column muscles?

longus colli, longus capitus, and scalenus

27

What is another name for the ventral vertebral column muscles?

Hypaxial

28

Where is the longus colli found?

Cranial thoracic vertebral bodies and cervical vertebral bodies and transverse processes

29

Where is the longus capitus found?

Lateral to the longus colli from the transverse processes of cervical vertebrae to the ventral part of the skull

30

Where is the scalenus m. found?

Often a group of three muscles, from caudal cervical vertebrae to cranial ribs

31

What are the four rectus capitus muscles?

Dorsalis major - Dorsalis minor - Lateralis - Ventralis

32

What are the two oblique capitus muscles?

Cranialis and Caudalis

33

What is the function of the capitus muscles?

Fine control of the atlantoaxial and atlantooccipital joints

34

What are the fascias of the neck?

Carotid sheath, pretracheal, and prevertebral

35

What is within the carotid sheath?

Common carotid artery, internal jugular vein, and VAGOSYMPATHETIC trunk

36

What is within the pretracheal fascia?

Muscles and viscera of the ventral neck

37

What is with in the prevertebral fascia?

All muscles associated with the vertebral column

38

What happens when the ventral vertebral muscles pass into the thorax?

Prevertebral fascia blend with the endothoracic fascia

39

What is the clinical significance of the region where the ventral vertebral muscles enter the thorax?

Possible route of infection

40

What are the two primary cutaneous muscles over the neck?

Cutaneous colli and Platysma

41

What is different about the cutaneous colli in horses?

Well developed near the manubrium, forms a thick cover over the caudal part of the jugular groove

42

What is the most ventral, non-cutaneous, muscle of the neck?

Sternocephalicus

43

What is the origin of the sternocephalicus?

Frist sternebra

44

What is the insertion of the sternocephalicus?

Mastoid and nuchal crest

45

What is the nerve that innervates the sternocephalicus?

Accessory nerve (CN XI)

46

What is the action of the sternocephalicus?

Unilateral lateral flexion of the neck and Bilateral ventral flexion of the neck

47

How is the sternocephalicus different in the horse?

Inserts on the manible and also thought to have a role in jaw opening

48

What are the two groups of muscles that control the position of the hyoid? (very basic)

Cranial and caudal group

49

What cranial muscles affect the positioning of the hyoid?

Muscles of the oral cavity, tongue, and pharynx

50

What is the caudal muscles that affect the positioning of the hyoid?

Sternohyoideus - Omohyoideus - Sternothyroideus - Thyrohyoideus

51

What once of the caudal muscles of the thyroid is not present in dogs and cats?

Omohyoideus

52

Where in the horse is omohyoideus located?

Lateral to the sternohyoideus

53

Where does the omohyoideus travel in horses?

Diverges from the sternohyoideus and goes more laterally toward the subscapular fascia