Lecture 20 - External anatomy of the Brain Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 20 - External anatomy of the Brain Deck (60):
1

What do mammalian brains have more of?

Convolutions

2

What are convolutions related to?

Overall size, NOT ability

3

What do the convolutions do?

Keep neurons with similar or related functions together spatially

4

What does the forebrain partake in?

Sensory processing, decision making, and relay to/from body

5

What does the brain stem have within it?

Midbrain, pons, cerebellum, and medulla

6

What does the brain stem have within it dealing with the CN?

Cranial nerve nuclei

7

What does the brain stem do?

Conduit of function between spinal cord and forebrain

8

What are the two structures of the brain?

Telencephalon/Cerebrum
-- and --
Diencephalon/Thalamus

9

What are the landmarks in the cerebrum? (basic)

Hemisphere (right and left)
Gyri (Ridges)
Sulci (Grooves) - cruciate
Fissures (longitudinal and transverse)

10

What are the five cerebral lobes?

Parietal, frontal, olfactory, temporal, and occipital

11

What is the corpus callosum?

Axonal tract that allows communication between lobes on right and left side

12

What are the commissural fibers?

Interconnect corresponding structures between hemispheres

13

What are association fibers?

Interconnect different areas of cortex in same hemisphere

14

What are the two kinds of projection fibers?

Corticopetal and Corticofugal

15

What is the corticopetal?

Fibers entering cortex

16

What is the corticofugal?

Fibers exiting the cortex

17

Where are the motor and motor planning portions of the brain generally located?

Frontal and parietal lobes

18

Where are the primary sensory cortices found?

MANY PLACES

19

Where is the visual cortex?

Occipital lobe

20

Where is the somatosensory cortex?

Parietal lobe

21

Where is the auditory cortex?

Temporal lobe

22

What is the diencephalon?

Thalamic nuclei

23

What are the two parts of the thalamic nuclei?

Thalamus and Hypothalmus

24

What is the thalamus?

Selectively routes motor and sensory info to portions of the cortex

25

What is the hypothalamus?

Autonomics, appetities, temperature, circadian rhythm

26

What CN nuclei are contained in the midbrain?

CN III and IV

27

What CN nuclei are contained in the pons?

CN V and VI

28

What CN nuclei are contained in the medulla?

CN VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII

29

What do you have to worry about when there is damage to the brain stem?

Cranial nerve function and innervation of the body

30

What protects the brain?

Meninges

31

What are the three layers of meninges?

Dura mater - arachnoid mater - pia mater

32

What is between the skull and the dura mater?

Epidural space

33

What is within the epidural space?

Fat and veins

34

What is between the dura mater and the arachnoid mater?

Subdural space

35

What is within the subdural space?

Very small amounts of lymphatic fluid

36

What is between arachnoid space and the pia mater?

Subarachnoid space

37

What is within the subarachnoid space?

Cerebrospinal fluid

38

What are the three dural reflections?

Falx cerebi - Falx cerebelli - Tentorium cerebelli

39

What are sinuses, structurally?

Small gaps between folds of dura and skull

40

What is the function of the sinuses?

Receive venous blood draining from the brain

41

Where does the blood from the sinuses go?

Vertebral and internal jugular vein

42

Where are the dura folds located?

Cerebral hemispheres and cerebellum

43

How many ventricles are there?

4 total - 2 lateral, third and fourth

44

What is the function of the ventricles?

Spaces in the brain within which CSF is produced and circulates

45

What are choroid plexuses?

Vascular tufts into ventricles that release CSF

46

What is CSF made from?

Ultrafiltrate of blood plasma

47

What is the function of CSF?

Protect the brain
Transports nutrients
Flushes away waste products
Medium for diffusion of neuroendocrine and NT's

48

How often is CSF produced in dogs?

Continuous, ~30 mL per hour

49

What is the path of the CSF?

Choroid plexus - Subarachnoid space - Arachnoid granulation

50

What are arachnoid granulations, functionally?

Where the CSF can enter the venous system

51

What are the arachnoid granulations, structurally?

Outpockets from the subarachnoid space into dural venous sinus

52

What two main arteries contribute to the circulus arteriosis cerebri?

Internal carotid aa. and vertebral aa..

53

What branches in the circulus arteriosis cerebri come off the internal carotid aa.?

Rostral cerebral aa.
Middle cerebral aa.
Caudal cerebral aa.

54

What branches in the circulus arteriosis cerebri come of the vertebral aa.?

Basilar a.
Rostral cerebellar aa.
Caudal cerebellar aa.

55

What does the rostral cerebral aa. supply?

Medial portions of the cerebral hemispheres

56

What does the middle cerebral aa. supply?

Lateral portions of the cerebral hemispheres

57

What does the caudal cerebral aa. supply?

Posterior portions of the cerebral hemispheres and midbrain

58

What does the basilar a. supply?

Pons

59

What does the caudal cerebellar a. supply?

Caudal cerebellum

60

What does the rostral cerebellar aa. supply?

Midbrain, pons, rostral cerebellum