Flashcards in Lecture 37 - Avian anatomy Deck (50):
How many avian zoonotic disease have been described?
What is the composition of avian bone?
Light, compact, and strong
Greater calcium phosphate content
What is different about the vertebrae of birds?
Considerable fusion of the spine
How are the bones modified for air sacs?
What is different about the pelvis in birds?
What are the three regions of the avian spine?
Notorium - Synsacrum - Pygostyle
What makes up the notorium?
Fusion of T 1-3
What makes up the synsacrum?
Fusion of T7, L, S, and C1
What makes up the pygostyle?
What are the two major extrinsic flight muscles?
-- and --
What is the action of the pectoralis?
Pull the wings down
What is the action of the supracoracoideus?
Raise the wings
What are the major characteristics of the digestive organs in birds?
Highly efficient due to high metabolic rate
What is different about the avian stomach?
Crop - esophageal diverticulum
Two chambered stomach
What is the cloaca?
Digestive, urinary, and reproduction terminus
What is the function of the crop?
Partial food digestion
Production of crop milk
What is crop milk?
Crumbly material made of desquamated lipid-laden epithelial cells mix with ingested food
What is partially digested in the crop?
Carbohydrates via amylase
What avians are missing a crop?
Owls, gulls, and penguins
What are the two portions of the stomach?
What is the function of the Proventriculus?
Glandular stomach - contains glands that secrete hydrochloric acin and mucous
What is the function of the ventriculus?
Muscular stomach - contains tubular glands that produce secretion rich in carbohydrates and proteins
What is another name for the ventriculus?
What is Meckel's diverticulum?.
Normal remnant of yolk sac
What is different about the vocal organ in a bird?
Separated from the larynx - syrinx
What are the basic characteristics of the avian lung?
Small and dont expand
What allows for one way air flow in birds?
Segregation of ventilation and exchange
What are the four sacs?
Cervical - Clavicular - Cranial thoracic - Abdominal
What is missing from a birds urogenital area?
Male accessory glands
What are the three parts of the male reproductive organs?
What produces the seminal fluid in the bird?
Cell lining of the deferent duct
Why is the lymph supply needed for in the phallus?
Tumescence and protrusion
What are the two types of penises in avians?
Galliformes - Cloacal kiss
Anseriformes - protrusible
What are the five portions of the female repro-tract?
What is the function of the infundibulum?
Conveys and stores sperm
What is the function of the magnum?
Secretes albumen, Na, Ca, and Mg
What is the function of the isthmus?
Produces the shell membranes
What is the function of the uterus?
Secrete watery albumen
Deposit shell and cuticle
What is the function of the vagina?
How long and how much time is spend in the infundibulum?
How long and how much time is spend in the magnum?
How long and how much time is spend in the Isthmus?
How long and how much time is spend in the uterus?
How long and how much time is spend in the vagina?
What is different about the vascular system of avians?
Presence of pectoral trunk
Different terminal branching of aorta
2 cranial vena cava, jugular anastomosis, and renal portal vein
What are the big lymphatic organs?
-- and --
Where is balt?
Bronchi and lungs
Where is GALT?
Liver - Intestines - Pancreas - Kidney
What lymphatic organ is in the colo-rectal area?