Lecture 37 - Avian anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 37 - Avian anatomy Deck (50):
0

How many avian zoonotic disease have been described?

15

1

What is the composition of avian bone?

Light, compact, and strong
Greater calcium phosphate content

2

What is different about the vertebrae of birds?

Considerable fusion of the spine

3

How are the bones modified for air sacs?

Pneumatization

4

What is different about the pelvis in birds?

Open ventrally

5

What are the three regions of the avian spine?

Notorium - Synsacrum - Pygostyle

6

What makes up the notorium?

Fusion of T 1-3

7

What makes up the synsacrum?

Fusion of T7, L, S, and C1

8

What makes up the pygostyle?

C 2-5

9

What are the two major extrinsic flight muscles?

Pectoralis
-- and --
Supracoracoideus

10

What is the action of the pectoralis?

Pull the wings down

11

What is the action of the supracoracoideus?

Raise the wings

12

What are the major characteristics of the digestive organs in birds?

Relatively small
Highly efficient due to high metabolic rate

13

What is different about the avian stomach?

Crop - esophageal diverticulum
Two chambered stomach

14

What is the cloaca?

Digestive, urinary, and reproduction terminus

15

What is the function of the crop?

Food storage
Partial food digestion
Production of crop milk

16

What is crop milk?

Crumbly material made of desquamated lipid-laden epithelial cells mix with ingested food

17

What is partially digested in the crop?

Carbohydrates via amylase

18

What avians are missing a crop?

Owls, gulls, and penguins

19

What are the two portions of the stomach?

Proventriculus
Ventriculus

20

What is the function of the Proventriculus?

Glandular stomach - contains glands that secrete hydrochloric acin and mucous

21

What is the function of the ventriculus?

Muscular stomach - contains tubular glands that produce secretion rich in carbohydrates and proteins

22

What is another name for the ventriculus?

Gizzard

23

What is Meckel's diverticulum?.

Normal remnant of yolk sac

24

What is different about the vocal organ in a bird?

Separated from the larynx - syrinx

25

What are the basic characteristics of the avian lung?

Small and dont expand

26

What allows for one way air flow in birds?

Segregation of ventilation and exchange

27

What are the four sacs?

Cervical - Clavicular - Cranial thoracic - Abdominal

28

What is missing from a birds urogenital area?

Renal pelvis
Bladder
Urethra
Male accessory glands
Right oviduct

29

What are the three parts of the male reproductive organs?

Testis
Epididymis
Deferent duct

30

What produces the seminal fluid in the bird?

Cell lining of the deferent duct
Testes

31

Why is the lymph supply needed for in the phallus?

Tumescence and protrusion

32

What are the two types of penises in avians?

Galliformes - Cloacal kiss
Anseriformes - protrusible

33

What are the five portions of the female repro-tract?

Infundibulum
Magnum
Isthmus
Uterus
Vagina

34

What is the function of the infundibulum?

Receives ovum
Conveys and stores sperm
Fertilization
Chalaziferous layer

35

What is the function of the magnum?

Conveys sperm
Secretes albumen, Na, Ca, and Mg

36

What is the function of the isthmus?

Conveys sperm
Secretes albumen
Produces the shell membranes

37

What is the function of the uterus?

Convey sperm
Secrete watery albumen
Deposit shell and cuticle

38

What is the function of the vagina?

Egg expulsion
Convey sperm
Receives sperm

39

How long and how much time is spend in the infundibulum?

7 cm
15 min

40

How long and how much time is spend in the magnum?

30 cm
3 hr

41

How long and how much time is spend in the Isthmus?

8 cm
1 hr

42

How long and how much time is spend in the uterus?

8 cm
20 hr

43

How long and how much time is spend in the vagina?

7 cm
~1 min

44

What is different about the vascular system of avians?

Presence of pectoral trunk
Different terminal branching of aorta
2 cranial vena cava, jugular anastomosis, and renal portal vein

45

What are the big lymphatic organs?

BALT
-- and --
GALT

46

Where is balt?

Bronchi and lungs

47

Where is GALT?

Liver - Intestines - Pancreas - Kidney

48

What lymphatic organ is in the colo-rectal area?

Cecal tonsil

49

What produces B cells in the bird?

Colacal bursa