Lecture 31 - Pharynx and Larynx Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 31 - Pharynx and Larynx Deck (81):
0

What part of the larynx articulates with the temporal bone?

Hyoid apparatus

1

What are the larynx and bronchial tree developmentally related to?

Digestive tract - see this with the pharynx

2

What are the three functions of the larynx?

Protection/isolation of the airway from the digestive tract
Control pulmonary air pressure
Vocalization

3

What are the four cartilages of the larynx?

Epiglottis - Arytenoid - Thyroid - Cricoid

4

What is the paired set of cartilages in the larynx?

Arytenoid

5

What is the positioning of the epiglottis?

Extends from the larynx to a position caudal third of the tongue

6

What does the stalk of the epiglottis do?

Articulates with the thyroid cartilage on ventral midline

7

What does the cranial horn of the thyroid cartilage articulate with?

Thyrohyoid element of the hyoid appratus

8

What does the caudal horn of the thyroid cartilage articulate with?

Cricoid cartilage

9

What function does the cricoid cartilage provide?

Facet for articulation with the thyroid cartilage at the junction of the lamina and ventral arch

10

What types of movements can the arytenoid cartilage do?

Rotation
Medial-lateral
Dorsal-ventral (limited)

11

What are the two processes of the arytenoids?

Muscular and vocal

12

What direction are the muscular process of the arytenoids directed?

Laterally

13

What way are the vocal processes directed?

Ventrally

14

What are the two membranes of the larynx?

Vestibular and Vocal

15

Where is the vestibular ligament located?

Caudal edge of a membrane connects lateral sides of the epiglottis to the cranial end of the arytenoid

16

Where are the vocal ligaments located?

Cranial edge of a membrane that connects the cricoid, thyroid, and vocal processes of the arytenoid

17

What is the action of the cricothyroideus m.?

Thyroid cartilage rotates at the cricothyroid joint

18

What are the four effects of the laryngeal muscles on the vocal folds?

Adduction - Abduction
Lengthening - Shortening

19

What does adduction of the vocal folds cause?

restricts airflow or produce phonation

20

What does abduction of the vocal folds cause?

Increase airflow

21

What does lengthening of the vocal folds cause?

Raise pitch of sound produced

22

What does shortening of the vocal folds cause?

Lower the pitch of the sound

23

What is the only muscle that abducts the vocal folds?

Dorsal Crucoarytenoid

24

Where does the dorsal cricoarytenoid articulate?

Dorsal lamina of cricoid cartilage

25

Where does the dorsal cricoarytenoid muscle insert?

Muscular process of the arytenoid

26

What nerve innervates the dorsal cricoarytenoid?

Caudal laryngeal n.

27

What occurs in regards to the muscles when abduction of teh vocal folds occur?

Pull muscular process of arytenoid dorsally

28

What are the five major nerves to the Larynx?

Cranial - External - Internal - Recurrent - Caudal

29

What does the cranial laryngeal nerve come off of?

Branch of the vagus nerve

30

What does the cranial laryngeal nerve give rise to?

External and internal laryngeal n.

31

What does the external laryngeal n. do?

Motor to the cricothyroid

32

What does the internal laryngeal nerve do?

Sensation from the larynx cranial to the vocal folds
Vestibular folds

33

Where is the recurrent laryngeal n.?

Runs cranially through the neck to approach larynx caudally

34

What does the caudal laryngeal n branch from?

Recurrent laryngeal n.

35

What does the laryngeal n. do?

Carry motor to all other muscles and sensation from caudal half of larynx

36

What is the function of the cough reflex?

Prevent objects from getting into the trachea

37

How is the cough reflex intiated?

Object touches vestibular fold

38

What happens when the cough reflex is initiated?

Vocal folds are tightly ADDucted to prevent further passage

39

What two nerves are involved in the cough reflex?

Internal and caudal laryngeal

40

What function does the internal laryngeal n. provide in the cough reflex?

Sensation from the larynx cranial to the vocal folds, senses the object

41

What happens in horses that causes problems with the dorsal cricoarytenoid muscle?

Left recurrent hemiplegia

42

What animal, specifically, does left recurrent hemiplegia occur in?

3-5% of thoroughbreds

43

What happens with left recurrent hemiplegia?

Impairment of respiration produces an intolerance to exercise
Roaring occurs

44

What is deglutition?

Swallowing

45

What structures are involved in swallowing?

Tongue - Palate - Pharynx

46

What function does the soft palate have in swallowing?

Elevates to close off the nasal cavity

47

What function does the pharynx have in swallowing?

Approaches oral cavity and widens to receive food

48

What ellicits peristalsis in swallowing?

Food making contact with the pharyngeal wall

49

What are the three regions of the pharynx?

Nasopharynx - Oropharynx - Laryngopharynx

50

Where is the oropharynx?

Caudal to the palatoglossal fold

51

What does the auditory tube do?

Connects middle ear to nasopharynx

52

What are the two muscle groups in regards to the pharynx?

Constrictors and movers

53

Where do the pharyngeal constrictors insert?

Dorsal midline connective tissue line

54

What do the pharyngeal constrictors do?

Produce peristaltic movements that push food to the esophagus

55

What do the pharyngeal movers do?

Put pharynx into position to begin swallowing

56

Where do the pharyngeal movers originate?

Put the pharynx into position to being swallowing

57

What are almost all the pharyngeal muscles innervated by?

CN X - vagus

58

Where do the pharyngeal movers originate?

Outside the pharyngeal wall and pass into the pharynx -

59

What are the pharyngeal constrictors?

Hyopharyngeus - Thyropharyngeus - Cricopharyngeus

60

Where does the hyopharyngeus originate?

On thyrohyoid and ceratohyoid elements of the hyoid apparatus

61

Where does the thyropharyngeus originate?

Originates on the lateral side of the thyroid lamina

62

Where does the cricopharyngeus originate?

On the lateral aspect of the ventral arch of the cricoid

63

What are the pharyngeal movers?

Pterygopharyngeus - Stylopharyngeus - Palatopharyngeus

64

Which mover is innervated by the Glossopharyngeal nerve?

Stylopharyngeus

65

Where does the pterygopharyngeus originate?

Pterygoid hammulus

66

Where does the stylopharyngeus originate?

Stylohyoid

67

What else does the stylopharyngeus do?

Pharyngeal dilator

68

What artery supplies most of the pharynx?

Ascending pharyngeal artery

69

What does the ascending pharyngeal artery come off of?

External carotid

70

What does the ascending pharyngeal artery anastomose with in dogs?

Internal carotid artery

71

Where does the internal carotid come from?

Foramen lacerum

72

What happens with the ascending pharyngeal artery in animals without internal carotid artery?

becomes a possible alternate route of blood supply to the cerebral arterial circle

73

What two cranial nerves contribute to the plexus of the pharynx?

Glossopharyngeal N.
-- and --
Vagus N.

74

What nerves are part of the gag reflex?

CN IX - X

75

What is the function behind the gag reflex?

Prevents swallowing of unexpected food or foreign objects

76

What starts the gag reflex?

Touching the pharyngeal mucosa of oropharynx

77

What provides the sensory innervation to the oropharynx?

CN IX - Glossopharyngeal

78

What happens when the gag reflex is started?

Wave of pharyngeal contraction that runs caudal to crainal

79

What does the CN IX contribute to?

Mostly sensory oxons to the pharyngela plexus

80

What does the vagus nerve contribute to?

Motor axons to the pharyngeal plexus