Lecture 14 - Leg and tarsus Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 14 - Leg and tarsus Deck (80):
1

What are the bones of the "leg"?

Tibia and fibula

2

What are the bones of the hock?

tarsals and metatarsals

3

What are the muscles of the pes?

Metatarsals and phalanges

4

What are the joints of the hock?

Talocrural

5

What are the other joints of the leg/tarsus?

TMT, MTP, and IP

6

What do the muscles in the leg and tarsus region act on?

moving the tarsus and pes

7

What are two compartments in the leg?

Caudal and crainolateral

8

What artery supplies the caudal compartment?

Saphenous a.

9

What nerve supplies the caudal compartment?

Tibial n.

10

What are the main actions of the caudal compartment?

Extension of tarsus and flexion of digits

11

What artery supplies the crainolateral compartment?

Cranial tibial a.

12

What nerve supplies the crainolateral compartment?

Fibular n.

13

What are the main actions fo the crainolateral compartment?

Flexion of tarsus and extension of digits

14

What are the three tiers of the tarsal bones?

Proximal, middle, and distal

15

What is within the proximal tier of tarsal bones?

Talus/Astragalus (medial)
Calcaneus (lateral)

16

What is within the middle tier of tarsal bones?

Central tarsal bone

17

What is within the distal tier of the tarsal bones?

Tarsals 1-4 (mediolateral)

18

What is different about the fourth tarsal bone?

constantly present, much deeper, and intrudes into the middle tier

19

What is different about the tarsal bones in equidae?

1+2 fuse

20

What is different about the tarsal bones in bovidae?

2+3 fuse and central+4 fuse

21

What part of the talus articulates with the tibia?

Proximal trochlear surface

22

What does the distal surface of the talus articulate with?

Central bone

23

What does the distal surface of the talus look like in horses?

Flattened

24

What does the flattened talar head in horses provide?

Greater stability at the talar/central articulation

25

What occurs at the talo-crural joint?

Trochlea of talus conforms with cochlea of tibia providing free excursion

26

What happens at the talo-crural joint when the there is flexion at the hock in horses?

Distal limb is carried laterally due to the shaping of the talo-crural joint

27

What does the talar head in artiodactyls articulate with?

Central and fourth tarsal

28

What is different about the shape of the talar head in artiodactyls?

Expanded
Forms double-pulley astragalus

29

What are the parts to the calcaneus?

Sustentaculum, tuber calcanei, and head

30

What does the calcaneus support?

Plantar surface of talus and tendon of flexor digitorum superficialis

31

What surface is at the proximal end of the bone?

Tuber calcanei

32

What attaches at the Tuber Calcanei?

Calcaneal tendon

33

What does the tuber calcanei provide?

Free lever arm for movement at the hock

34

What does the distal end articulate with?

Fourth tarsal

35

What is MT1 in dogs?

dewclaw, not all dogs have it

36

What are the four levels of articulation?

Tarso-crural joint
Proximal intertarsal joint
Distal intertarsal joint
Tarsometatarsal joint

37

What joint does most movement occur?

Crurotarsal joint

38

What type of joint is crurotarsal (movement-wise)?

Atypical hinge joint

39

What happens with foot when carried forward with flexion?

Lateral deviation

40

How does the crurotarsal joint help the pelvic limb?

Helps it be external to thoracic limb when they overlap during high speed running

41

What joint is there some movement in ruminants and carnivores?

Talocentral joint - limited flexion

42

Why is movement allowed at this joint in ruminants/carnivores?

Curved surfaces of the joint

43

Where are the three synovial compartments?

1) Tarsocrural and proximal intertarsal joint
2) Distal intertarsal joint
3) Tarsometatarsal joint

44

Where are there pouches located?

Tarsocrural and proximal intertarsal joints

45

What are the four pouches?

Laterodorsal, mediodorsal, medioplantar, and lateral plantar

46

What is the significance of the pouches?

Weaker part of the joints, swelling can occur here due to overdistension

47

What are the two main ligament groups in the hock?

Collateral ligaments (medial/lateral)
Long plantar ligament

48

Where are the collateral ligaments coming from and going to?

Extend from tibia/fibula to base of metatarsus

49

What are the two parts each collateral ligament consists of?

Long superficial and shorter deep

50

Where is the short, deep ligament restricted to?

Proximal level of articulation

51

Where is the long plantar ligament?

Caudal

52

Where does the long plantar lig. start and end?

Extends from plantar surface of calcaneus over 4th tarsal bone to the metatarsus

53

What do the smaller ligaments do?

Hold tarsal bones together and maintain the integrity of pes

54

What is different about the tibialis cranialis in ungulates?

Passes between split in fibularis tertius and spilts into dorsal and medial branch

55

Where does the dorsal branch of the tibialis cranialis go?

Metatarsal tuberosity

56

Where does the medial branch of the tibialis cranialis go?

1st and 2nd tarsal bones

57

What is different about fibularis longus and brevis in horses?

not present

58

What muscle is missing in carnivorans?

Fibularis tertius

59

What muscles contribute to the deep digital flexors?

flexor digitorium, flexor digitorium medialis, and tibialis caudailis

60

In horses and ruminants the tibialis caudalis tendon merges with what?

FDL and FDM

61

What is the important muscle in pes?

Interossei

62

What differs about the extensor brevis in the pes from the manus?

Muscle belly originates on dorsum of talus and calcaneus and inserts dorsally on digits III-V

63

What is the origin of the common fibular n?

Sciatic nerve

64

What nerves branch off the common fibular n.?

Superficial fibular n. and Deep fibular n.

65

What does the Tibal n. originate from?

Sciatic nerve

66

What muscles does the common fibular n. innervate?

Crainolateral leg group

67

What is the path of the common fibular n.?

Passes lateral to lateral gastronemius to enter leg laterally

68

What cutaneous branch comes off the common fibular n.?

Lateral sural cutaneous branch

69

Where does the common fibular n. branch?

Near fibular head

70

What does the deep fibular n. innervate?

Muscles of the crus

71

What cutaneous innervations does the deep fibular n. provide?

Dorsal pes

72

What muscle group does the tibial n. innervate?

Caudal leg group

73

What is the path of the tibial n.?

Passes between the two heads of the gastronemius to enter the leg

74

What cutaneous branch comes off the tibial nerve?

Caudal sural cutaneous branch

75

What does the tibial n. spilt into?

Medial and lateral plantar nerves

76

Where does the tibial n. split?

When it enters the hock

77

Where does the tibial n. provide sensation?

dorsal pes

78

What are the two superficial veins in the leg?

Lateral and medial saphenous v.

79

What does the lateral saphenous v. drain into?

Popliteal v.

80

What does the medial saphenous v. drain into?

Femoral v.