Lecture 18 - The Neck II Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Lecture 18 - The Neck II > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 18 - The Neck II Deck (65):
1

What is the primary blood supply to the head and neck?

Common carotid

2

Where does the supplemental supply for blood to the head and neck come from?

Subclavian arteries

3

What is the artery of common origin for the carotid and subclavian arteries?

Brachiocephalic trunk

4

What is different about pigs and dogs in regards to their brachiocephalic trunk?

Left subclavian has separate origin off of the aorta

5

What artery supplies branches to the vertebral muscles and spinal cord?

Vertebral artery

6

What path does the vertebral artery take?

Passes through the foramina of 6th through 1st cervical vertebra

7

What two arteries provide minor branches to the neck?

Deep cervical artery and superficial cervical artery

8

Where does the common carotid artery divide?

The level of the hyoid

9

What are the two divisions of the common carotid artery/.

Internal and external

10

What carotid branch supplies most of the head?

External carotid artery

11

Where does the cranial thyroid artery come from?

Common carotid artery

12

What does the cranial thyroid artery supply?

Viscera and ventral musculature

13

What are two important structures of the internal carotid artery?

Carotid sinus and carotid body

14

What is the carotid sinus?

Dilation at the origin of the ICA

15

What is contained within the carotid sinus?

Baroreceptors

16

What is the carotid body?

A small mass, adjacent to carotid sinus that contains chemoreceptors

17

What is the path of the ICA?

Goes dorsally to the skull and enters through the carotid canal

18

What is different about the ICA in ruminants?

Develops but ends perinatally

19

What are the four main branches of the ECA?

Cranial laryngeal - Ascending pharyngeal - Lingual - Occipital

20

What are the two jugular veins?

Internal and external

21

What drains into the external jugular?

Primary drainage of the head and neck, including superficial and deep regions

22

What occurs at the internal jugular?

Not much, not very important in most animals

23

Where is the internal jugular?

Within the carotid sheath

24

Where does the external jugular form?

Near angle of the mandible

25

What muscle does the external jugular cross over?

Sternocephalicus

26

What muscle does the external jugular dive into?

Brachiocephalicus

27

What does the external jugular contribute to?

Formation of the cranial vena cava

28

Where is the external jugular found in horses?

In the jugular groove between the brachiocephalicus and the sternocephalicus

29

What are the two branches of the primary lymph drainage in the neck?

Superficial cervical lymph nodes
-- and ---
Deep cervical lymph nodes

30

Where are the superfical cervical lymph nodes?

Deep to the superficial neck muscles, cranial to the shoulder

31

Where are the deep cervical lymph nodes?

Run along length of trachea, often divided into cranial and caudal groups

32

What drains the lymph of the head/neck?

Paired tracheal ducts that run the length of the neck

33

Where does the lymph on the left side of the neck drain into?

Thoracic duct

34

Where does the lymph on the right side of the neck drain into?

Right lymphatic duct

35

What are the three category of nerves found in the neck?

Cervical spinal nerves - cranial nerves - autonomic nerves

36

What cranial nerves come out the jugular foramen?

CN IX, X, and XI

37

What is CN IX?

Glossopharyngeal

38

What is CN X?

Vagus

39

What is CN XI?

Accessory

40

What cranial nerves are found in the hypoglossal canal?

CN XII

41

What is CN XII?

Hypoglossal

42

What is the ansa cervicalis?

C1 (and some C2) of the ventral ramus join with fibers carried by the hypoglosssal nerve to form loop

43

What function does the ansa cervicalis provide?

Motor to the caudal hyoid group, NO SENSORY

44

What muscle do C2 -C5 ventral rami pierce through?

Omotransversarius

45

What function do C2-C5 provide?

Motor and sensory to the neck

46

What is special about the ventral rami of C5?

Provide motor and sensory to the proximal thoracic limb

47

What are the nerves from the ventral ramus of C2?

Great auricular n. and Transverse cervical n.

48

What is the sensory distribution for the greater occipital nerve?

Rostral portion of ear and top of head

49

What is the greater occipital nerve?

dorsal ramus of C2

50

What is the sensory distribution for the great auricular nerve?

most rostral part of neck and ear

51

What is the sensory distribution for the transverse cervical nerve?

Ventral portion of the neck

52

What is the sensory distribution for the C3 dorsal and ventral rami?

Rostral portion of the neck close to the base of the ears

53

What is the sensory distribution for the C4 dorsal and ventral rami?

Most caudal of the nerves, and will go into the brachial plexus

54

Where is the vagosympathetic trunk?

Within the carotid sheath

55

What is in the vagosympathetic trunk?

Cervical sympathetic chain and the vagus nerve

56

What does the cranial cervical ganglion do?

Provide sympathetics for most of the head and neck

57

What are the two parts of the salivary glands?

Parotid and mandibular

58

Where is the thyroid gland located?

Endocrine gland located along the sides of the proximal trachea

59

What does the cranial thyroid vein drain into?

Internal jugular

60

What does the caudal thyroid vein drain into?

Internal jugular
-- OR --
Brachiocephalic

61

What are the lobes of the thyroid associated with?

Crainal and caudal parathyroid glands

62

Where is the caudal parathyroid gland?

Embedded in the thyroid tissue

63

What is the thyroid isthmus?

Additional tissue bridging between the two lobes ventral to the trachea

64

Where is the thyroid isthmus found?

Cattle, pigs, and horses

65

What animal has the biggest thyroid isthmus

Pig