Flashcards in Lecture 11 - Hoof Deck (52):
What are perissodactlys?
What are artiodactlys?
What animal is an odd-toed?
What animal is an even-toed?
Bovine, carpine, swine, and ovine
What is the hoof a form of?
Highly specialized skin
How is the hoof formed?
Cornification of the entire integument at distal end of the limb
Why have these animals adapted hooves?
Due to being weight bearing on one or two digits, hoof made to handle force
What does the hoof capsule equate too?
What does the corium equate to?
What is the corium?
Modified dermis, continuous with dermis skin
What is the function of the corium?
Provide physical and nutritional support to the hoof capsule
What are the layers in the hoof wall?
Stratum externum, outer s. medium, inner s. medium, s. internum
What is each wall paired with?
What wall layer does the perioplic corium provide for?
What wall layer does the coronary corium provide for?
What wall layer does the laminar corium provide for?
What coriums are papillary coriums?
perioplic and coronary
What do papillary coriums do?
Associate with regions that produce new hoof
Where is the s. basal located? (what regions?)
Papillae and inter-papillary
What do s. basal at the papillae region produce?
What do s. basal at the inter-papillary regions produce?
What can keratin be stained with to see?
Rhomadine + ve
What stratum layer is keratinized?
What does the laminar corium interlock with?
Where does this occur?
What is the function of the interlocking of the laminar corium and the epi. lamellae?
suspend distal phalanx
What two other layers does the laminar corium attach to?
Periosteum of PIII
Perichondrium of lateral cartilages
What is another name for dermal lamellae?
What is the function of secondary lamella?
increase surface area for attachment
What two types of secondary lamellae are there?
dermal and epidermal
What type of corium is the sole and frog?
What is the papillary corium associated with (function-wise)?
Regions responsible for distal hoof growth
Where do the coriums attach?
Periosteum of PIII and capsule of digital cushion
What is the zona alba?
point where papillar corium of sole replace laminar corium and different wall strata
What is another name for the papillary corium?
What are the layers of the zona alba?
S. internum and I.S. medium
Which layer of zona alba is keritanized?
What layer represents the white line at the zona alba?
I.S. medium, deepest non-alive layer
What layers do horse shoe nails go through?
I.S. medium, O.S. medium, and S. Externum
In what direction is hoof growth?
Downwards to replace hoof lost via floor contact
What causes the downward hoof growth?
in the papillary corium the s. basal makes new hoof and pushes it down ward
What are the lamellar remodeling enzymes?
MMP and TIMP
What does MMP do?
digest laminin and collagen
What does TIMP do?
What is different about an artiodactly hoof?
More of a foot pad
Wall extends axially
What is different about the lamellae in the epidermal and dermal regions?
no secondary lamellae
What does the lack of secondary lamellae mean?
Not as strong interlocking, weaker
What replaces the frog corium in artiodactyl?
What is the footpad corium continuous with?
What is the digital cushion made of?
Fat and fibroelastic tissue
What extra appendage do artiodactyls have?
Dewclaws, mini-hooves of accessory fingers