Lecture 11 - Hoof Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 11 - Hoof Deck (52):
1

What are perissodactlys?

odd-toed ungulates

2

What are artiodactlys?

even-toed ungulates

3

What animal is an odd-toed?

Equine

4

What animal is an even-toed?

Bovine, carpine, swine, and ovine

5

What is the hoof a form of?

Highly specialized skin

6

How is the hoof formed?

Cornification of the entire integument at distal end of the limb

7

Why have these animals adapted hooves?

Due to being weight bearing on one or two digits, hoof made to handle force

8

What does the hoof capsule equate too?

Epidermis

9

What does the corium equate to?

Dermis

10

What is the corium?

Modified dermis, continuous with dermis skin

11

What is the function of the corium?

Provide physical and nutritional support to the hoof capsule

12

What are the layers in the hoof wall?

Stratum externum, outer s. medium, inner s. medium, s. internum

13

What is each wall paired with?

A corium

14

What wall layer does the perioplic corium provide for?

S. externum

15

What wall layer does the coronary corium provide for?

Medium layers

16

What wall layer does the laminar corium provide for?

S. internum

17

What coriums are papillary coriums?

perioplic and coronary

18

What do papillary coriums do?

Associate with regions that produce new hoof

19

Where is the s. basal located? (what regions?)

Papillae and inter-papillary

20

What do s. basal at the papillae region produce?

Tubular hoof

21

What do s. basal at the inter-papillary regions produce?

intertubular hoof

22

What can keratin be stained with to see?

Rhomadine + ve

23

What stratum layer is keratinized?

s. corneum

24

What does the laminar corium interlock with?

epidermal lamellae

25

Where does this occur?

hoof capsule

26

What is the function of the interlocking of the laminar corium and the epi. lamellae?

suspend distal phalanx

27

What two other layers does the laminar corium attach to?

Periosteum of PIII
Perichondrium of lateral cartilages

28

What is another name for dermal lamellae?

Modified papillae

29

What is the function of secondary lamella?

increase surface area for attachment

30

What two types of secondary lamellae are there?

dermal and epidermal

31

What type of corium is the sole and frog?

papillary corium

32

What is the papillary corium associated with (function-wise)?

Regions responsible for distal hoof growth

33

Where do the coriums attach?

Periosteum of PIII and capsule of digital cushion

34

What is the zona alba?

point where papillar corium of sole replace laminar corium and different wall strata

35

What is another name for the papillary corium?

terminal papillae

36

What are the layers of the zona alba?

S. internum and I.S. medium

37

Which layer of zona alba is keritanized?

I.S. Medium

38

What layer represents the white line at the zona alba?

I.S. medium, deepest non-alive layer

39

What layers do horse shoe nails go through?

I.S. medium, O.S. medium, and S. Externum

40

In what direction is hoof growth?

Downwards to replace hoof lost via floor contact

41

What causes the downward hoof growth?

in the papillary corium the s. basal makes new hoof and pushes it down ward

42

What are the lamellar remodeling enzymes?

MMP and TIMP

43

What does MMP do?

digest laminin and collagen

44

What does TIMP do?

inhibit MMP

45

What is different about an artiodactly hoof?

No frog
More of a foot pad
Reduced sole
No bars
Wall extends axially

46

What is different about the lamellae in the epidermal and dermal regions?

no secondary lamellae

47

What does the lack of secondary lamellae mean?

Not as strong interlocking, weaker

48

What replaces the frog corium in artiodactyl?

Footpad corium

49

What is the footpad corium continuous with?

Sole corium

50

What is the digital cushion made of?

Fat and fibroelastic tissue

51

What extra appendage do artiodactyls have?

Dewclaws, mini-hooves of accessory fingers

52

What "apparatus" are ungulates highly dependent on in their hooves, that can be the cause of laminitis?

Lamellar distal phalangeal suspensory apparatus