Lecture 9 - Integument part I Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 9 - Integument part I Deck (77):
1

What is considered a part of the integument?

skin and it's appendages

2

What are considered appendages of the skin?

Nails, claws, hair, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands

3

What is special about the integument system?

Largest organ and continuous with the lining of the mouth, anus, urethra, ears, and eyelids

4

What are the functions of the integument?

barrier for protection, immunologic information, sensory information, excretion, thermoregulation

5

What is the primary function of the skin?

Protection

6

What are the three skin layers?

Epidermis - Dermis - Hypodermis

7

What is contained in the hypodermis?

loose CT with fat, not an actual part of the skin layers

8

What is the hypodermis used for?

fat storage

9

What is another name fore the hypodermis?

Superficial fascia

10

What is the rete apparatus?

Interdigitiations of epidermal ridges and dermal ridges

11

What does the rete apparatus do?

attach epidermis to dermis

12

What cell type does the epidermis consist of?

Stratified squamous keratinized epithelium

13

What is the cycle of the epidermis?

20-30 days

14

What are two "types" of skin?

thin and thick

15

What is thick skin's general characteristics?

glabrous, smooth, and non-hairy; lacks hair follicles and sebaceous glands

16

Why isnt back thick skin?

it has fair follicles, the dermis is thick

17

Where is thick skin found?

Palm and soles

18

How many layers of epidermis does thick skin have?

all five

19

How many layers of epidermis does thin skin have?

3-4

20

What is included in thin skin?

Hair follicles, sebaceous, and sweat glands

21

What are the five layers of the epidermis (stratum)?

Corneum - Lucidum - Granulosum - Spinosum - Basale

22

How are keratinocytes arranged throughout the layers of epidermis?

They are throughout with different jobs and appearances

23

What is the stratum basale?

Cells that lie on basement membrane, actively dividing

24

How often are the cells at the stratum basale renewed?

15-30 days (differs with species)

25

What does a cell at the stratum basale look like?

Large nucleus, abundant free ribosomes,

26

What do the cells at the stratum basale make?

intermediate filaments = keratin

27

What do these keratin filaments make?

tonofilaments

28

What happens to the tonofilaments?

Bundled into tonofibrils in the basale and spinosum

29

What type of adhesion occurs at s. basale?

desmosomes, hemidesmosomes

30

What cell is responsible for skin color?

melanocytes

31

Where are melanocytes located?

stratum basale

32

What is the mitotic activity in s. spinosum?

Cells adjacent to s. basale are active

33

What type of cells are present in the spinosum?

cubodial or slightly flattened

34

What type of cell adhesion occurs in the s. spinosum?

filament-filled cytoplasmic spines and desmosomes

35

What is the name for the spaces between desmosomes?

nodes of bizzozero

36

What type of filaments are in the spines at the s. spinosum?

tonofibrils - numerous bundles

37

Where do these spines terminate?

desmosome

38

What immune cell is in the s. spinosum?

Langerhan cells

39

What is a special characteristic about the s. granulosum?

last layer with nuclei, lysosomal enzymes digest organelles

40

What are two types of granules within s. granulosum?

Keratohyalin and lamellar bodies

41

What is happening to the keratinocytes in s. granulosum?

they come from the s. spinosum and being to flatten

42

What are the characteristics of keratohyalin granules?

intensely basophilic and not surounde by a membrane

43

What are keratohyalin granules made by?

ribosomes

44

What is the function of keratohyalin granules?

associate with tonofibrils and help strengthen them

45

What is the function of lamellar bodies?

discharge lipid rich content, to water proof skin = barrier for foreign substances

46

What produces lamellar bodies?

Golgi apparatus

47

What evolutionary function does the s. granulosum provide?

Adaptation to terrestrial life

48

Where is s. lucidum found?

thick skin only

49

What are the characteristics of the s. lucidium?

no nuclei or organelles, densely packed keratin, clear thin eosinophilic layer

50

What are the layers in the s. corneum?

deep and superficial

51

What adhesions occur in the deep layer of s. corneum?

desmosomes

52

What adhesions occur in the superficial layer of s. corneum?

lose desmosomes and undergo desquamation

53

What is the major characteristics of the s. corneum?

15-20 layers of flat, non-nucleated, keratinized cells with thick membranes and no organelles (more layers in thick skin)

54

What do melanocytes look like?

Rounded cell bodies w/ long irregular extensions between cells of stratum basale and s. spinosum

55

What is the organelle composition in melanocytes?

numerous mitochondria, rER, Golgi

56

What activates melanocytes?

UV light

57

What does the rER make in melanocytes?

precursor to melanin

58

What does the golgi do with the precursor melanin?

packages it into melanosomes

59

What occurs at the tips of melanocytes?

melanosomes travel to here and are pinched off via cytocrine secretion

60

Where is melanin stored?

Keratinocytes

61

What is the pigment donation?

melanin produced in melanocytes but stored in keratinocytes

62

What happens to melanin?

Attacked and degraded by lysosomes of keratinocyte

63

How does the number of melanocytes change between groups?

Same number, distribution and amount of melanin varies

64

What is the origin of melanocytes?

neural crest

65

Where are langerhans cells located?

s. spinosum

66

Where do langerhans cells originate?

bone marrow

67

What is the function of langerhans cells?

APC

68

What are the characteristics of langerhans cells?

irregular nuclei, pale cytoplasm, long slender processes

69

What is a special structure of langerhans cells?

birbeck granules

70

What are birbeck granules?

unknown

71

What is psoriasis?

Greater epidermal thickness w/ rapid renewal of epidermis

72

Where is rapid cell proliferation occur in psoriasis?

s. basale and s. spinosum

73

What happens to keratinocytes in psoriasis?

Accumulate in s. corneum

74

What happens cycle time in psoriasis?

decreases

75

Where does basal cell carcinoma occur?

s. basale

76

What is the growth/placement characteristics of basal cell carcinoma?

slow-growing, most common on nose

77

Is basal cell carcinoma metastatic?

not metastatic