Flashcards in Lecture 30 - Nasal Cavity II Deck (44):
What are paranasal sinuses?
Bones in nasal cavity that are excavated by pockets of non-olfactory mucosa that grow outward
What are the three paranasal sinuses?
Maxilla - Frontal - Sphenoid
What is the "fake" sinus in some animals?
In the dog and cat, what is the most identifiable sinus?
What invades the frontal sinus?
Why is the maxillary sinus in dogs and cats known as the maxillary recess?
Not a small opening in the nasal cavity - there is a broad open communication
Where is the sphenoid sinus located?
Within the presphenoid bone
What is the difference between the dog and cat sphenoid sinus?
Dogs is filled with ethmoturbinates
What happens in the paranasal sinuses of non-carnivoran domestic animals?
very enlarged - invade adjacent bones (palatine, lacrimal, and nasal conchae)
Why are infections common in the paranasal sinus?
Because the foramen to drain these cavities doesn't allow passive drainage when animal is in normal posture
What is a side function of the dorsal portion of the frontal sinus?
Protects the braincase - why it is hard to kill a pig and cow at this location
Why do the molars cause a problem with the maxillary sinus?
Roots grow into the sinus
Can damage when those teeth are removed
What are the two basic parts of the palate?
What two foramen are within the palatine bone?
Major and minor palatine foramen
What are Rugae?
Transverse ridges in mucosa
What are the function of the Rugae?
Help direct food caudally in oral cavity
Where is the incisive papilla?
Raised bump directly caudal to the central incisors
What is different about the rostral end of a cattles hard pallet?
No incisors, has a dental pad
What is the basic function of the soft palate?
Some control over separation between digestive and respiratory pathway
What does the palatinus muscle do?
Shortens and ventrally curls palate
What is the origin of the levator veli palatini?
Muscular process of the temporal bone
What is the insertion of the levator veli palatini?
Dorsal surface of the soft palate
What nerve innervates the levator veli palatini?
Branch of the pharyngeal plexus
(Mostly CN X and some CN IX)
What is the action of the levator veli palatini?
Elevate soft palate
What is the origin of the tensor veli palatini?
Muscular process of the temporal bone
What is the insertion point of the tensor veli palatini?
Lateral soft edge of the soft paalte after wrapping around pterygoid hamulus
What nerve innervates the tensor veli palatini?
What is the action of the tensor veli palatini?
Tense the soft palate
What does the palatoglossus do?
From the lateral aspect of the palate to the tongue
Where is the palatopharyngeus?
Caudolateral aspect of the palate to the pharyngeal wall
What nerve innervates the palatoglossus and palatopharyngeus?
What do the palato. muscles form bilaterally?
What is present within the tonsilar fossa?
What are the three major palatine arteries?
Descending - Major - Minor
What is the path of the minor palatine artery?
Passes caudual to the margin of the hard palate to reach the soft palate
What is the path of the major palatine artery?
Enters caudal palatine foramen and passes through the canal to reach hard palate
What does the descending palatine artery give rise to?
Major palatine artery
Where does the major palatine artery split?
Ventral end of the palatine canal
What happens to the rostral branch of the major palatine artery?
Runs through the palatine groove to the palatine fissure and gives off branch to nasal cavity
What happens to the caudal branch of the major palatine foramen?
Exits the minor palatine foramen and forms an anastomosis between major and minor palatine arteries
What branches come off the maxillary and that supply sensory to the palatine mucosa?
Major palatine - Accessory palatine - Minor palatine
What is structurally wrong with dogs that experiance branchycephalic syndrome?
Obstructed nasal cavity
Elongated soft palate
What can be a secondary problem from brachycephalic syndrom?