Flashcards in Lecture 35 - Primates + Human Evolution Deck (41):
What are the 4 groups of primates in order of least-most related to humans?
1. Pottos, lemurs, lorises
3. Old/new world monkey
4. The great apes
What is the primary habitat of pottos, lemurs, and lorises?
Which is older? new or old world monkeys?
new world monkeys
What are 4 new world monkey characteristics?
3. prehensile tails
4. nostrils open to side
What are 4 characteristics of old world monkeys?
1. arboreal + ground-dwelling
2. lack prehensile tails
3. nostrils open downward
What are the great apes in order from least-most related to humans? (5)
What are 5 general attributes of primates?
1. opposable thumbs
2. larger brains, shorter jaws
3. flat nails on digits (not claws)
4. relatively well-developed parental care/social behavior
5. forward facing eyes
Hands and feet used for grasping
Relatively well developed parental care + complex social behavior
Flatter face + less pronounced chin
opposable thumbs (most)
forward facing eyes with good depth perception
dispell 3 myths of human evolution
1. ancestors are neither chimps nor apes
2. evolution not a ladder to Homo sapiens
3. mosaic, not uniform evolution of human traits
Who was the possible last common ancestor of humans? How long ago?
Ardipithecus (4.4 million years ago)
our genome is most different form ______
Who is a possible direct ancestor? How long ago?
Australopithecus afarensis (Lucy) 3.2 million years ago
Who was Gigantopithecus?
-10 foot tall
-vegetarian early ape/hominin
-evolutionary dead end
Who was Paranthropus boisei?
early stage of human development
Who is most likely our direct ancesor?
Hommo erectus or ergaster
Who was Homo naledi?
-found in South Africa
-earliest ritual burrial
Who was Homo floresiensis?
-lived until 13,000 years ago
What was significant about Homo neanderthalis?
-interbred with humans
Who are Denisovans?
-recently diverged sister taxon of humans
-we contain their genes
What is the multiregional hypothesis?
-modern humans evolved in parallel from local populations of H. erectus
What does the multiregional hypothesis suggest about genetic similarity?
-due to occasional inter-breeding between neighboring populations
What is the replacement hypothesis?
"Out of Africa"
-all Homo sapiens evolved from second major migration out of Africa
What does the replacement hypothesis suggest about migrants?
-migrants completely replaced all regional populations derived from first hominid migration
Which hypothesis is thought to be accurate?
Out of Africa/Replacement hypothesis
________ lead to selection of traits that promoted intelligence and flexibility?
climate change led to _______
genetic drift (small populations growing back up)
There was a positive feedback loop between _____ and ______
tool use and brain size