Lecture 35 - Primates + Human Evolution Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 35 - Primates + Human Evolution Deck (41):
1

What are the 4 groups of primates in order of least-most related to humans?

1. Pottos, lemurs, lorises
2. Tarsiers
3. Old/new world monkey
4. The great apes

2

What is the primary habitat of pottos, lemurs, and lorises?

Madagascar

3

Which is older? new or old world monkeys?

new world monkeys

4

What are 4 new world monkey characteristics?

1. older
2. arboreal
3. prehensile tails
4. nostrils open to side

5

What are 4 characteristics of old world monkeys?

1. arboreal + ground-dwelling
2. lack prehensile tails
3. nostrils open downward
4. newer

6

What are the great apes in order from least-most related to humans? (5)

1. gibbon
2. orangutan
3. gorilla
4. chimpanzee
5. bonobo

7

What are 5 general attributes of primates?

1. opposable thumbs
2. larger brains, shorter jaws
3. flat nails on digits (not claws)
4. relatively well-developed parental care/social behavior
5. forward facing eyes

8

Hands and feet used for grasping

all primates

9

Relatively well developed parental care + complex social behavior

great apes

10

Flatter face + less pronounced chin

humans

11

sexual dimporphism

great apes

12

cooperation

humans

13

upright posture

humans

14

language

humans

15

opposable thumbs (most)

all primates

16

shorter jaws

all primates

17

brachiating

great apes

18

forward facing eyes with good depth perception

all primates

19

flat nails

all primates

20

symbolic thought

humans

21

bipedal locomotion

humans

22

dispell 3 myths of human evolution

1. ancestors are neither chimps nor apes
2. evolution not a ladder to Homo sapiens
3. mosaic, not uniform evolution of human traits

23

Who was the possible last common ancestor of humans? How long ago?

Ardipithecus (4.4 million years ago)

24

our genome is most different form ______

gorilla

25

Who is a possible direct ancestor? How long ago?

Australopithecus afarensis (Lucy) 3.2 million years ago

26

Who was Gigantopithecus?

-10 foot tall
-vegetarian early ape/hominin
-evolutionary dead end

27

Who was Paranthropus boisei?

early stage of human development

28

Who is most likely our direct ancesor?

Hommo erectus or ergaster

29

Who was Homo naledi?

-found in South Africa
-earliest ritual burrial

30

Who was Homo floresiensis?

-the hobbit
-lived until 13,000 years ago

31

What was significant about Homo neanderthalis?

-interbred with humans

32

Who are Denisovans?

-recently diverged sister taxon of humans
-we contain their genes

33

What is the multiregional hypothesis?

-modern humans evolved in parallel from local populations of H. erectus

34

What does the multiregional hypothesis suggest about genetic similarity?

-due to occasional inter-breeding between neighboring populations

35

What is the replacement hypothesis?

"Out of Africa"
-all Homo sapiens evolved from second major migration out of Africa

36

What does the replacement hypothesis suggest about migrants?

-migrants completely replaced all regional populations derived from first hominid migration

37

Which hypothesis is thought to be accurate?

Out of Africa/Replacement hypothesis

38

________ lead to selection of traits that promoted intelligence and flexibility?

climate change

39

climate change led to _______

genetic drift (small populations growing back up)

40

There was a positive feedback loop between _____ and ______

tool use and brain size

41

____ led to less competition between males

monogamy