Lecture 36 - Marine Environments Flashcards Preview

BISC 120 > Lecture 36 - Marine Environments > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 36 - Marine Environments Deck (33):
1

What are 4 categories of marine animals?

1. plankton
2. nekton
3. benthos
4. decomposers

2

What are plankton?

-weakly swimming, free-floating biota

3

What are 3 types of plankton?

1. Phytoplankton (plant)
2. Zooplankton (animal)
3. Ultraplankton (photosynthetic bacteria)

4

Nekton EX

fish, turtles, whales

5

Benthos EX

bottom dwellers (barnacles, oysters)

6

What are decomposers?

-breakdown organic compounds (mostly bacteria)

7

Where is most action?

-Costal waters

8

2 characteristics of the Coastal Zone

1. warm, nutrient-rich shallow water
2. extends from high-tide mark on land to gently sloping/shallow edge of continental shelf

9

What are Estuaries?

Where rivers enter the ocean
EX: river mouths, inlets, bays, sounds, salt marshes etc.

10

What are salt marshes

-some of most productive habitats on earth
-serve as fish nurseries

11

What is SAV?

-submerged aquatic vegetation
-Eelgrass

12

What is a Mangrove forest?

-found along 70% of gently sloping sand/silty coastlines
-tropical/subtropical regions

13

What is a kelp forest

-contains certain type of plant that forms forest
-houses resident fish + visitors

14

What is the effect of sea otters on kelp forests?

-eat the urchins
-otherwise kelp will die

15

What is Coral bleaching

-corals lose their zooxanthellae when stressed

16

5 traits of coral reefs

1. 1-9 millino species
2. 1/2 ocean's total biodiversity
3. high level of producitivty
4. 100 million people directly dependent on healthy coral reefs
5. threatened due to ocean acidification

17

What is the deep sea? (3)

1. cold, dark immense pressure
2. little to eat (not lifeless)
3. largest habitat on planet

18

5 realms of the deep sea from shallow-deep

1. Mesopelagic
2. Bathypelagic
3. Bathyal
4. Abyssal
5. Hadal

19

3 characteristics of animals in Mesopelagic Realm

1. small size, huge eyes, large jaws/teeth
2. bioluminescence + countershading
-Daily (diel) vertical migrations

20

6 characteristics of bioluminescence

1. biologically produced light
2. symbiotic bacteria
3. predator avoidance
4. species recognition
5. prey attraction
6. mate attraction

21

What is countershading?

-lights on underside make fish less visible from below

22

What are lantern fish?

-last unexploited stocks of fish (could change soon)

23

What is the Deep Scattering Layer

-worldwide phenomena after WWII
-detected by sonar

24

5 key characteristics of the Bathypelagic Realm

1. bigger individuals (lower biomass, abundance)
2. high species diversity
3. black + red in color
4. no vertical migrations to surface
5. small/large eyes, bioluminscence

25

2 opportunists of the Bathypelagic Realm

1. Gulper eel
2. Angler fish

26

2 characteristics of deep-sea floor

1. soft bottoms
2. hydrothermal vents + cold seeps

27

What are Hydrothermal Vents/ Cold seeps

-oases of life
-located at mid-oceanic ridges (underwater mountain ranges)

28

What are the base of food webs in hydrothermal vents/cold seeps?

-symbiotic chemoautotrophs

29

Who discovered deep sea hydrothermal vents?

Alvin and RV Atlantis in 1977
(Bob Ballard "accidental" celebrity explorer)

30

What is Alvin's Sipper?

extending want that collects water samples at hydrothermal vents

31

What is black smoke?

-rich in minerals ion, salt, manganese, sulfer

32

What is white smoke

more manganese (lower temp)

33

What is chemosynthetic bacteria?

-in total darkness they use chem. energy to "fix" carbon + produce food